LSD differential - what is it?

Every motorist seeks to learn about his car as much useful and important information. Naturally, if you do not know what a differential is, you can still drive a car. But on this everything will end - you will be not capable of more, but many motorists prefer to repair their four-wheeled friend on their own. Moreover, drivers have their own chemless community, and you are unlikely to be able to get into it if you do not have any idea about how your car works. It is for this that you need to learn absolutely all the little things, since they may well come in handy in the future.

And in this article will be considered in detail the LSD differential. What it is? How does he work? What kind of types does it have? You will find answers to all these questions in the process of reading an article about the LSD differential. What it is? This is the first question to which I would like to find an answer, but do not hurry. First of all, you should learn what a differential is in principle if you do not know. If this information is already known to you, then you can simply refresh your knowledge before you begin to the main part of the article.

You can in the bridge in the stickers on the node itself or on the driver's door arch, but as practice shows, most often on old cars such stickers are not saved.

What is differential?

So, the main topic of this material is the LSD differential: what it is, as it works and so on. But at first you still have to learn about what is generally differential. Many motorists already know the definition of this concept, but if it is still unknown to you, this information will become very important for your further study theme.

Differential in automotive terminology is a mechanism that is part of the transmission. It serves to transfer power, but he has one interesting feature, because of which he received such a name. The fact is that the power in the differential is divided in the process of rotation either by two differentially related flows, or two power flows are summed into one. It is worth paying attention to the fact that two power flows are interconnected between themselves differentially, that is, in sum, they give a hundred percent of power, but they do not have a specific indicator. In other words, they can give both 50 by 50 percent of power, and 70 by 30 percent, and 100 by 0 percent and, on the contrary, 0 per 100 percent of power.

Well, it is basic information regarding the differential as such. However, the topic of the article is a little different, therefore it is worth moving to the consideration of the relevant issue. The topic of the article is the LSD differential, which is, how this mechanism is valid and what kinds have it. It is about this that will be discussed below.

LSD differential what is it

Self-locking differential

Differential of increased friction LSD is self-locking, and it is impressive different from the classic option. What are the differences? The fact is that when a big difference in the speed of rotation speeds of the wheel drive, blocking is included, allowing you to resolve the problem as quickly and efficiently as possible. The simplest example is a tracker of the front or rear wheels, it was she who became the priority cause of the need for changes in the classical differential. When any of the axes begins to scroll due to the fact that the wheels cannot overcome one or another section of the road, the self-locking differential can become a real rescue.

Naturally, for even smooth road surfaces, you do not need such a blocking - however, this is another reason that you pay more attention to theories. After all, there are differentials with different types of blocking, which are suitable for both various cars and for different road surfaces and conditions. That is why you should carefully examine what is the differential of increased friction of LSD.

Oil for LSD Differential

Abbreviation

You have received a general idea of ​​what is a lsd self-locking differential, however, if you are asked what these three letters mean, which are indicated in the title - what can you answer? In fact, everything is quite simple - this abbreviation is decrypted as Limited Slip Differential, which can be translated in different ways.

One option was already indicated above - differential increased friction, but often you can meet another differential with increased internal resistance. Both options are correct, and if you use any of them, you will most likely understand. But it is much easier, naturally, to use the reduction of LSD, as it is a versatile, capacious and understandable to everyone.

However, this is all the only theoretical data - it's time to figure out how the LSD differential works, and it is worth it with its comparison with a classic analogue.

Differential of increased friction LSD

Comparison of the operation of the Differential LSD with classic

The classic differential also has several names, each of which is quite wide. It can be called standard, open and even free - and his distinctive feature is the fact that he has a permissible difference in the angular velocities of the output shafts. What does it mean? This means that each of the weekends can work both one hundred percent and for zero percent. And this, in turn, means that one of the shafts can even stop. It can be easily noticed when a tonus, when one wheel works at full power, and the second is not scrolled at all.

How does the LSD-differential cope with this problem? The principle of operation of this mechanism is extremely simple - it has an automatic blocking system that allows the difference in the power of two streams, but a small enough, for example, 60 percent by 40 percent. However, when this difference exceeds the allowable limits, there is a blocking that protects the car from the negative consequences of this phenomenon. The work of the LSD differential is most noticeable in SUVs, as well as in sports cars.

LSD Differential Operation Principle

Where is such a device?

As you already understood, for each type of car there are differentials and ways to block the difference in capacity. If you drive on a passenger car on a flat and smooth asphalt road or highway, you do not need to take care of the problem described above. As mentioned earlier, the most apparent such differential is in SUVs and sports cars. If you drive on an SUV, then most likely you have to move around the rough terrain, where is the likelihood that your machine will start to buck. And in order to avoid this, as you already understood, you need a high-quality blocking of differential.

The LSD version is ideal for this suitable, evenly distributing power flows and not allowing that one shaft gets all the power, and the other remains fixed. Approximately the same thing happens in the case when you drive on a sports car. However, in this case, your goal is not to cope with the rough terrain, and overcome the asphalt at the start.

If you have seen at least once how the car starts on large speeds from the scene, you definitely noticed that the wheels on the start are scrolled - this is just because of a high difference in power flows. The self-locking differential lowers this difference to a permissible minimum, thereby minimizing and scrolling the wheels at the start at large turns. So, for example, the LSD differential subaru racing model will strive to maximize the difference between power flows, but without prejudice to the general car indicators.

Work LSD Differential

Principle of operation

You have already managed to get a general idea of ​​how such differential works, but it is worth stopping separately at this moment. After all, the principle of operation is what is the most important point in the entire understanding of the device. So, this mechanism initially works in the same way as the classic - power is fed on two channels, but there is a factory limit of the difference of these two capacities, which can be achieved during the movement.

As a result, when an unforeseen situation occurs and the power of one stream begins to greatly exceed the power of the other, the same blocking is triggered. As a result, the power is redistributed, or rather reset it to a standard distribution, that is, 50 by 50 percent. The normalization of torque allows you to get out of the difficult situation. And in modern differential models, the blocking remains active until the situation comes to normal, that is, until contact with the road is completely restored.

Locking Differential LSD.

Types of LSD Differentials

As it has already become quite clear, these mechanisms are far from the only car in the world. However, they themselves are also divided into species that you should also consider in more detail. So, there are only two main species, but they work in a completely different principles. The first is a design that is based on sensitivity to the speed difference, while the second is on sensitivity to the difference in the transmission of torque. However, is it really so great enough to pay special attention to this? It's time to know about it.

Difference between LSD Differentials

So, if you have a choice between two mechanisms, one of which activates the blocking depending on the difference in speeds, and the other - depending on the difference of torque, which one should you choose?

It is worth knowing that the first view is much more popular, it is used in most cars on which the LSD differential is installed. Therefore, it is still worth making a choice in favor of it. There are two reasons. The first is that the differential works through the design on the basis of the Viscounts - a fairly simple mechanism that is easy and inexpensive. Therefore, the price for such a differential will be lower, while the mechanical blocking of the second type is more expensive in production and, accordingly, it will cost more when purchasing.

The second reason is the simplicity and unpretentiousness of the Viscounts - you don't have to take care of her at all, and if something happens to her, then the repair will be simple and inexpensive. If we consider the second type of differential, the design there is rather complicated, has a large number of parts, so that the repair of the LSD differential will be difficult and expensive.

Differentials sensitive to speed difference

Now it's time to look more carefully to consider both these species, as they also have their division - as you can see, this question is far from this simple, which it could seem originally.

So, the first version of the mechanisms based on sensitivity to the speed difference is a viscous differential. You need to carefully select the oil for the LSD differential of this type, since a silicone gel is played here, which should not be mixed with butter. For this, the viscous food is also, that is, the main tank of this device is made sealed.

Actually, it is because of the gel and it turns out one of the most important advantages of this type of differentials - they work very smoothly due to changes in the properties of this gel. Thanks to him, the stepper disappears, which is the problem of many gearboxes. And given the fact that now the automotive industry is mainly aimed at improving the comfort of the driver and passengers, this property turned out to be very important.

However, it is not necessary to think that this type of differential is ideal - he has its drawbacks. For example, the work here is performed due to the pressure of the fluid, as a result of which part of the energy is lost, and, accordingly, the fuel consumption increases. Also, do not forget that such a mechanism is very sensitive to high loads, so that with each strong towing, its effectiveness will fall. Well, of course, the oil for the LSD differential, which was already above, should be high, since the Viscounts have increased sensitivity to seals.

However, there is another type of differentials sensitive to the speed difference - they operate on the basis of the gesture pump. This is a relatively recent technology - more precisely, it began to receive development along with computer progress, since the driver can control the driver independently in modern cars. It is expected that in the near future this type will be the most popular - it is installed, for example, on all Toyota cars. But do not forget that you now need to carefully choose oil for LSD. Differential Toyota and other brands that use this technology is sensitive to it.

Differentials sensitive to the difference in the transmission of torque

Well, the second type, as you already know, is not sensitive to the difference in speeds, but to the transmission of torque. Naturally, the design of this mechanism is highly different - most often the mechanical worm-type mechanical differentiations are found on the market. The principle of their work is to ensure an automatic lock in the event that the difference of torque torque at the body and in the drive shaft exceeds the permissible norm. As a result, if this difference rises to unacceptable indicators, then automatic redistribution of torque occurs.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that the blocking is not complete, that is, it depends on what is the difference between the torque of the case and the drive shaft. Often it happens the rear Differential LSD - this means that it is not installed on the front, but on the back bridge of the car.

You can meet the two most popular subspecies of this mechanism - Torsen and Quavif. The first was formed directly from two English words, Torque and Sensing, which are translated as "torque" and "sensitive", respectively.

Well, now you know almost all that you need to know about such a mechanism as the Differential LSD. Toyota, BMW, Mercedes and all the leading car brands are almost always equipped with such devices, because at the moment they are most effective.

Differential with increased internal resistance (also: Differential of limited slippage (LSD), Differential of elevated friction , self-locking differential, differential with limiting slip ) - this is differential, the mechanics of the work of which due to structurally laid high internal resistance between some rotating parts allows such differential without any control influences from the outside to align independently angular velocities of the leading and slave links up to their mutual blocking and transformation of the entire differential in direct transmission .

It should be borne in mind that in English literature data differentials are indicated as "LSD (Limited-Slip Differential)", i.e. "Differential of limited slipping" (slipping), and this term does not define the physical principle of the device, the presence of friction, resistance, as well as the presence / absence of differential control, etc. It is only the name of the uncontrolled difference in the angular velocities ("slippages") itself. The "limit of slipping" usually implies a certain specified limit of the difference in angular velocities, when the blocking is exceeded. In a number of implementations, blocking can be used preemptively, i.e. Even before the semi-axes there will be a difference of angular velocities.

The main advantage of differential with increased internal resistance (hereinafter referred to as the DPVS) can be seen by considering the case with a conventional (or "open") differential, which does not have any contact with the road at all. In this case, the second wheel in contact with the road will remain fixed, and the first, not in contact with the road wheel, will rotate freely - the transmitted torque will be equal to both wheels, but will not exceed the threshold value of the torque required to move the vehicle, And therefore the vehicle will remain fixed. In ordinary cars moving along asphalt roads, such a situation is unlikely, and therefore for such cars the usual differential is quite suitable. When driving in more complex conditions, for example, when moving in dirt or off-road, such situations happen, and the presence of differential with increased internal resistance allows not to stop movement. Due to the restriction of the difference in the angular speeds of the Wheels, the useful point is transmitted until at least one of the wheels has a clutch with the road.

The blocking coefficient is the most important estimated property of any DPLS. In informational materials about the DPVS, this coefficient can be expressed in two ways and somewhat different in the meaning of interpretation, although in both cases imply the same thing, only from different points of view.

In foreign technical literature, the KB is usually expressed by the percentage value in dozens of percent in the range of 20% and higher. The figure indicates the width of the range of the relative distribution of the torque between the wheels / axes from the static disinfectant (adjusted to its possible asymmetry) to the maximum level of 100/0, within which the DPLS can provide mutual blocking. This definition falls under the English-speaking term Locking Effect ("Blocking Effect"). In the Russian-speaking technical literature, the KB is expressed in a number of 2 and higher (usually, without decimal fractions), denoting the maximum possible difference in torque (difference in the strength of thrust) on wheels / axes, within which this DPID can provide their mutual blocking. This definition of the KB corresponds to the English term Torque Bias ("Moment Shift").

The ratio between the KB in numerical and percentage values ​​is shown

Although both concepts of the KB are suggested by various formulas of the calculation, absolutely any DPLS can be correctly appreciated by any of them. At the same time, each of the two values ​​of the KB can be correlated with a common estimate indicator, and between both values ​​there is always interchangeable compliance. So, for example, the value of KB = 50% and KB = 3 means in both cases the same thing: that the DPVS with the specified CB allows the redistribution of torque between wheels / axes in a ratio of no more than 75/25, which gives 50 % of the total range of possible redistribution of the effective torque used (75-25 = 50), and on the other hand, gives a 3-fold difference in the possible strength of thrust (75/25 = 3). Numeric (not percentage) The value of the KB may be more intuitive here, especially since in addition to its basic meaning, it assumes a similar difference in the permissible force of the clutch of the wheels / axes with the surface, which in the same case KB = 3 means that the maximum Efficient use of the engine power on this DFLS is possible only if the clutch force of each wheel with the surface of the road will differ no more than three times.

Simple (free) differential does not allow you to get any difference in efficiently used torque on the slave units, here the difference between the strength of the traction of both wheels / axes is almost zero on any modes, the KB of such differential is 0% or 1. Direct transmission or blocked Differential allow all efficiently used torque to implement on any slave link, here any wheel / axis can provide all the thrust at zero level on another wheel / axis, and KB in this case is 100% or infinity.

The DPBS may have two top CB values ​​- one for each power branch. This is possible in cases of an asymmetric differential when the CB receives an amendment for asymmetry - that is, the upper values ​​of the KB for each of the sides differ from each other to the difference in the ratio of the torque-launched moments (for example, in the asymmetric back cam-66 cargo dpvs, Torque on wheels in the ratio ≈ (60/40), the KB values ​​for the right and left wheels are equal, respectively, 3.1 and 2.1). And this is possible in symmetric differentials, when it is constructively permissible to mechanics for blocking operation (for example, in the symmetric worm DPVS Torsen Type-1, different KB values ​​can be realized through different angles of teeth cutting in each pair of satellite gear).

Usually under the KB of a specific DPID implies its maximum KB. At the same time, any DPVS has the value of the so-called initial KB, which is usually not declared.

Under this term, it is implied to the creation of the internal resistance to the mutual rotation of the slave units in statics, that is, if there is no submission to the differential of any minimum torque. The magnitude of the preload level is determined by the force necessary for the shift (rotation) of any dialectful differential when the stationary level is fixed. In the free differential, the preload level is close to zero. The preload, if any, "works" is always, regardless of whether the DPH HT is loaded or brake torque or not loaded. The presence of preload is not a prerequisite for the operation of the DPBS.

The so-called "preload coupling" suggests a certain device inside the DPVS, which performs the above-mentioned functions and impede the mutual rotation of the driven samples of the differential. The design of this device does not have a universal view and on different DPDs can be any. Usually it is the spacer springs of different shapes, complemented by remote rings.

Types of DPVS and concrete structures [edit | Code ]

In passenger cars, two types of DPVS are usually used:

Differentials of both types allow for some constructively programmed difference between torque torque (in the first case) or angular velocities (in the second case), but they impose a mechanical limitation on the occurrence of their large imbalances.

Constructively, screw locking differentials can be performed on the basis of any flat single-row or double-row planetary mechanism of the circuits or with parallel satellite axes, which, in turn, can be both single and paired interpretable. In general, two features will be general for any type of performance: the use of cylindrical axes gears in all pairs of engagement and the absence of actual axes of satellites as details. The screw transmission, as such, is not used here, and the widely used term is occurring exclusively from the visual similarity of the satellite of the differential with the screw, especially in contrast with its main gears. And the satellite gears here rotate not on the axes, but in cylindrical pockets, tested in the case / driving of differential. The idea of ​​blocking is based on the fact that axial forces arise in the japboard under load, seeking to push along their axes both of the gears in opposite to the side of the side of the side, and here this property is primarily used in pairs of interpreted satellites, which for this is obtained by some axial mobility. Under the burden, when turning or slipped the wheels, rotating satellites are crushed in their pockets, rest in the ends into the case of the differential, due to which their braking and self-leveling of the angular velocities of the slave gears occur. The satellite samples are the more stronger than the torque transmitted by them, but the blocking coefficient itself is determined by the angle of inclination of the gearing teeth and the friction properties of the contact of the satellite / housing. To enhance the effect of self-motion in these differentials, it is usually used more than the three pairs of satellites for a flat planetary mechanism - namely, from four to seven pairs. And to enhance the friction effect at the contact points of the ends of satellites with the differential housing, disc-gaskets can be used from a material that creates increased resistance by friction. In the case of single satellites, the work of the differential is in principle similar, with the only difference that not only satellites, but also the central sacters of the differential are involved in self utility.

Due to the garage gear gears can be used on flat planetary mechanisms of any diagram and shape, differentials based on them can be performed with almost any given gear ratios in each pair of links leading-slave. Accordingly, such differentials can be both symmetrical and asymmetrical, and used in transmission and as intercoles and as an inter-axis. In these differentials, the preload is actively used, and the blocking moment here is created in the traction mode, even in the absence of a difference in the angular velocities at the output. But exclusively on the hook of the engagement, the high values ​​of the blocking coefficient are not available (usually <3), and to enhance the effect, such differentials can be complemented by friction packages by type of differentials with disk locking.

Screw differentials are very widely distributed to this day. Their main scope is sports and racing cars. They are also used as tuning for minor improvement in road vehicles. However, they are usually not used for truly off-road technician. The most famous samples from the British company Quaife Engineering and American Torsen Na Inc are most famous. In the first case, differential is called - Quaife. In the second case, this is the so-called Torsen Type-2 and Torsen Type-3.

Structurally, all worm lock differentials are made on the basis of simple spatial planetary mechanisms with satellite schemes. Visually, the sun-satellite engagement pair looks here as a worm gear, in which the axes of the worm wheel and the worm itself are also perpendicular to each other and do not intersect. The role of the worm and the role of a worm wheel here can act as satellites and slave gears, and there are worm lock development with both roles distribution between gears. The idea of ​​blocking is based on the fact that worm gear is characterized by self-motion in cases of power direction from a worm wheel to a worm, which is the stronger than the angle of inclination of the cutting of the cavity of the worm to its axis of rotation.

Although the worm block differential is most famous in the variant developed by the American Torsen Na Inc., the so-called Torsen Type-1 - the developer itself avoids the term "worm gear" in describing its differential. The gearbox here is declared as a ososophy on crossed axes, but not just a osostic, but with some specific developed by the Torsen itself and the shape patented by them INVEX ™ which is actually a particular embodiment of evolvently engagement. In Russian-speaking engineering and technical literature it is believed that Torsen Type-1 The role of worms is performed by slave gears, and the role of worm wheels - satellites. The explanation of this stems from a different angle of inclination of the sliced ​​cutting on the slave gears and satellites. The unusual three-row shape of satellite with span-up gearing across the edges and osomophones in the center is exclusively due to the fact that due to the arrangement with the crossed axes, it is constructively impossible to organize the simultaneous tap of both satellites with driven gears and satellites with each other, and to the increase Internal Differential Resistance This feature has no relationship. Both driven gears here have a coinage of teeth and some minimal axial mobility, which, as in the case of rotary lock differentials, is necessary to shift both gears along the axis under load, only in this case is not for contact with the case, but for their mutual self-motion A friend of each other, which makes a significant contribution to the overall increase in internal resistance. Differential moment-sensitive. The blocking coefficient in different versions is 3-6. The differential is visually and kinematically symmetrical, and in the case of the inter-axis used on the modifications of AWD machines, initially anterior-driven. Generally, Torsen Type-1 There is one of the most famous DPVS models. It was widely used in WRC racing cars and Formula 1 of different years and as an inter-wheelchair and as an inter-axis. And on road passenger cars, it has become a completely unambiguous association with a full drive system from Audi - Quattro - although in the latest developments Audi also used other options. Among the off-road vehicles, the well-known carrier of this DPLS is Hummer H1.

The real sections with worm lock and high (about 10 and even higher) the blocking coefficients were American and German developments for high-pass trucks. In this case, the design of the planetary mechanism of DPBS assumed triple interpretable satellites, of which two satellites were worms, and one was a worm wheel. Also, worm wheels were driven gears, and there were 8 worms and 6 worm wheels of two sizes in the differential. The main attempts on the mass use of these DPVS fell on pre-war years. In the USSR, this type of DPLS was tested after the war, both in the form of trophies from Rheinmetall-Borsig AG, and in the form of home development "improved" design on the basis of German. There are no data on specific American and German media, although it is believed that worm-lock differentials were widespread on various trucks and roads for off-road and career developments. In the USSR, the only more or less mass carrier is Ural-375d. Modern use is probably zero.

Disassembled differential with disk lock

A constructive differential with disk blocking always consists of a planetary mechanism of the scheme on a conical gear, supplemented by a pair of miniature conical friction clips and a pair of multi-disc friction packets, located along the differential axis on both sides between the slave gears and the case. Part of the friction discs here is engaged with the case of the differential, and a part with a miniature cone-shaped clutch, which matches each with its driven gear (Sun). The idea of ​​blocking is based on the fact that there are axial forces under the load in the conical gears, seeking to push the gears of each other, and unlike the free differential, where this effect is trying to level, it is precisely due to it and a compression of friction packets between the slave gears and the case of the differential, which in turn leads to alignment of angular velocities. In addition to the conical clutches and friction packages for enhancing the effect, the spacer suits installed between the slave gears is often used here. And for strengthening the effect, these differentials usually have not two, but four satellites on a cross-tree drill.

The development of such differentials is known from the pre-war period - they were engaged in American firms LETURNO-Westinghouse and Borg Warner. Modern view and disc lock Differentials have acquired in the 60s when relatively reliable friction materials appeared, which made it possible to make the entire system compact and suitable for passenger cars. Today, used as intercoles in the rear leading bridges of both sports and off-road cars. Reliable, but may require adjustment over time.

Fist Differential Porsche, used on KDF82

Constructively, two versions are possible here. In one case, the cam coupling consisting of two cam disks and an intermediate separator with breadcrumbs is located between both slave gears of free differential. In the second case, the planetary transmission of the differential does not have gentle wheels at all: the separator ring is served by the separator ring, the satellites are crowns, and the role of the driven gears perform two cam discs or rings with a wave-like profile with a surface separator. In both cases, the idea of ​​blocking is based on the fact that, with a certain difference in the angular velocities, the driven links, crops are crushed between cam / rings and almost instantly block differentials. The blocking here works only on the difference in angular velocities. Until some value of this difference, the differential works as free, by achieving - immediately blocked, and it does not matter whether it is loaded with a torque or not. There is no transient mode of partial blocking between free and blocked states.

The first well-known developments of cam differentiars are likely to belong to Ferdinand Porsche. It was his differential that went into a series on KDF-Kübelwagen machines. Today, cam flavored differentials are mainly used as intercoles in high-pass vehicles and in military equipment (armored personnel carriers, etc.).

Constructively differentials with ball lock are a kind of erzats of the planetary transmission of a symmetric scheme. Formally, they do not have neither gear, nor satellites in their design, but in fact, the functions of their parts and the general principle of their work is identical to the structure and the principle of operation of any real planetary differential, and the lock mechanic is determined by increasing the internal resistance of work, as in the other types of self-locking Differentials. In the role of satellites, the balls are used here, which are tightly naked in the challenged grooves in the case (drill) of the differential, and which, like real satellites, are in contact with each other and with a pair of slave Erzats gear (two suns). With a small difference in the angular velocities, the balls, pushing each other, move in the sliding groove in one direction or the other, providing differential rotation of the entire structure. When a certain level of difference in angular velocities (slip), the led gear balls cannot be supported, due to the friction, it is in their grooves, and thereby create a blocking effect.

This design is little known in the global car industry and all its distribution is probably limited to Russia and Ukraine. The most famous differentials with ball lock are automatic differential of beautiful and automatic nonzero differential.

Viscosity clutch with an open case.

Constructively differential consists of a simple planetary mechanism of absolutely any scheme and the viscous coupling connecting two of its any links (two any feed / removal shaft). The Viscounts can be located both inside the differential and bind two slaves, and outside and link the lead and slave link (on the principal work of the entire system the location of the Viscouft has no effect). The idea of ​​blocking is based on the properties of the Viscounts to align the angular velocities of the two of its links due to the properties of the dilatant fluid. Blocking works only on the difference in angular speeds. 100% blocking is allowed briefly. Transition modes are also actively used.

The viscous DPBS is less effective in comparison with the aforementioned mechanical DPIDs, as energy dissipates them. In particular, any permanent load that heats the fluid inside the coupling leads to non-resistant permanent loss of the "differential effect". [one]

This DPBS should not be confused using the Viscounts in the systems of the so-called full drive on demand.

Differential with a hetero pump [edit | Code ]

In the differentials of this type, on one side, the housing of the heotor pump rotates, and from the opposite side the shaft rotates, connected to the gear wheel inside the pump. When the difference occurs in the frequencies of rotation of the body and the gear, the pump compresses the working fluid in the inner cavity of the pump. This ensures the transmission of torque to the wheel of the machine having a stronger clutch. Systems based on pumps have the upper and lower boundaries of the pressure of the applied pressure, and internal damping to avoid hysteresis. The newest systems with herotor pumps have computer regulation of output power, which provides higher mobility and eliminates oscillations.

Electronic Differential [edit | Code ]

The development of electronic systems in cars made it possible to control the locking of the semi-axes using electronic control units (ECU). These systems necessarily use various sensors.

The first stage was the use of anti-lock system sensors (ABS) to determine the difference in the angular velocity of the bucking wheels and the further forced use of the brake system for the individual deceleration of the wheel rotating with too high speed - and, thus, the redistribution of the moment towards the opposite wheel through the free differential . The function of self-locking the differential in such vehicles is simulated, the differential itself remains classic free, and therefore such a solution is quite cheap, does not worsen the parameters of the car and does not require special maintenance. Such systems received the common name "anti-slip". In essence, they are a more advanced version of the ABS system, working not only when braking, but also when driving and accelerated. Also used as part of the more global system of "stabilizing" car body on the road in driving conditions. However, these systems are limited to the operation of the brake system, prone to overheating during constant operation and subsequent loss of efficiency. On full-fledged off-road technique usually not used.

The second stage was the introduction of electronic control systems with friction couplings implemented on each semi-axis. Such couplings can be opened when moving with approximately equal angular velocities, or vice versa closed for constant transmission of the moment by analogy with FullTime 4WD, but when determining the electronics of the slip of the slip, as well as to prevent it, the necessary couplings are reduced with the calculated force, transmitting more points On less movable semi-axes. Used, for example, in Haldex-4, VTM-4 systems. Can be implemented both using electric couplings and hydraulic, for which the electric pump is used.

The third stage of the development of such differentials are so-called. "Active differentials", where instead of blocking the filing of the moment, the constant control of the distribution of thrust between the semi-axes is used. In a number of implementations, such as Honda SH-AWD, the rear differential is implemented only functionally, without the most classical differential mechanics, and the entirely relies on electronic control and the speed of rotation of the rear wheels. At the same time, the whole moment transferred to this axis is used, without loss of braking, it is only redistributed towards less than the buxying semi-axis. At the same time, it is possible to increase controllability when turning, due to the transmission of an increased moment on the outer semi-axis, and even with an increase in the angular velocity, more than normal, due to the gearbox with an additional increase. At the failure of any sensors used by such systems, the thrust drive on the axis is terminated or functionality is reduced. Also, the system can shut off itself, for example, when overheated.

  1. Donnon, Martin et al. Zoom 67. (Neopr.) . - Express Motoring Publications, 2003. - P. 45-48. . - "... The Gel USED CAN QUITE Suddenly Alter With Massive Temperature, and Lose Its Ability to Generate Torque TranSfer."

Instead of administration

The last article on the differentialshalchsitis to promise to tell about the types of blocking differentials, and will have to scare you again with long-term technical text. We went, as Yu.A.Gagarin said 58 years ago.

What are we talking about?

So, the abbreviation of the LSD, which is indicated in the title of the article, is a reduction from Limited Slip Differential, and in Russian - differential with increased internal resistance. In the last article, we told you about the principles of the work of free differential, and here we will not stop at it. In the LSD design, a blocking moment is provided, which allows the difference in the speed of rotation of the shafts, but the blocking will only work in the case of a large imbalance.

Is it about off-road, right?

Percent by 50%. Such blockages are used in SUVs, and in sports cars. The first case - the car should not get stuck. The second case is needed even start, without slipping on asphalt.

LSD Differential Subaru.

How does LSD work?

Such blocking regardless of the design will work only after the moment in which the difference in corner speeds of wheels exceeds a certain limit. After that, blocking is triggered, and the torque is distributed in equal parts on both wheels. It will continue to either before restoring contact with the road, or until the complete clutch loss. You can choose it yourself.

And I heard about the Viscouft. What it is?

Good question. Leading bridges in passenger cars usually have two variants of blocking in their reserve. The first type is based on sensitivity to the speed difference, and the second type of blocking is sensitive to the difference in the transmission of torque. Modern cars in the overwhelming majority enjoy the locks of the first type. It is in this place that the word "Viscounts" appears. The Viscouft is a package of round flat friction discs installed inside the hermetic case. In the package there are two types of discs connected to the leading and slave shafts, respectively. On the surface of the discs there are holes and small protrusions. The disk package is assembled so that the driven and drive discs alternate together and were at a small distance. The coupling inner cavity is filled with silicone gel.

LSD Differential Subaru.

Such a coupling is easy to produce and unpretentious in service. The second type of mechanical locks is more expensive and can break earlier.

Good and different LSD

Differentials of this type vary in their types. We will tell you about them below.

Vissedy differentials

This common type of differential is based on the action of the Viscounts.

Such differentials were popular because of the smoothness of their work. The principle of operation is based on changes in the properties of a special gel that change steadlessly. Such a property satisfies the desire of manufacturers to increase comfort for the driver.

Of course, viscous buildings have their drawbacks. Any node that works at the expense of fluid pressure, loses part of the energy when working, which causes an increase in fuel consumption. They are also extremely sensitive to overheats and simply high loads. The wisciegel loses the working properties when increasing temperatures. Respectively? If you beat in the snow for a long time - the blocking work may be worse next time. Mechanical locks in the same case work equally, up to breakage.

LSD Differential Subaru.

Such differentials may require replacement every 100 thousand kilometers.

Such systems are very sensitive to the state of seals in the system, because the inner part of the differential is completely sealed. If the depressurization occurred - the Viscounts change.

Herotor pump

LSD Differential Subaru.

In these differentials, a generous pump was installed on the inside, and a gear wheel was strengthened to the rotating shaft, which is inside the pump. If, when rotating the housing of the heotor pump and the gear wheel, the difference appears in the speed - the liquid is compressed. After that, the torque goes to the "lagging" wheel, which has a clutch with an expensive. These systems are rapidly gaining popularity as it increases the degree of computer control of the vehicle nodes (EBD systems, and the like), since, unlike the Viscuples, the operation of the gerotrous pump can be controlled.

About torque

This type includes mechanical worm-type differentiations, providing automatic locking when the torque difference occurs between the case and the drive shaft. If one of the wheels slip, the torque drops, the worm differential redistributes the torque to the free wheel. In this case, the wheel is not completely blocked, and the degree of blocking depends on the degree of incidence of the torque. Self-locking differentials like "Torsen"

Video.

The satellites of the QUAIFE type differential (they are usually 10) are not attached on the axes, like the analogs, and are in the closed housing niches. All of them are parallel to the semi-axes, however, in contrast to Torsen T-2, where each satellite is constantly in contact with both semi-axes, in Quaife, the right row of satellites is in contact with the right semi-axis gear, left - with the left.

Instead of pre-school

Every motorist seeks to learn about his car as much useful and important information. Naturally, if you do not know what a differential is, you can still drive a car. But on this everything will end - you will be not capable of more, but many motorists prefer to repair their four-wheeled friend on their own. Moreover, drivers have their own chemless community, and you are unlikely to be able to get into it if you do not have any idea about how your car works. It is for this that you need to learn absolutely all the little things, since they may well come in handy in the future.

And in this article will be considered in detail the LSD differential. What it is? How does he work? What kind of types does it have? You will find answers to all these questions in the process of reading an article about the LSD differential. What it is? This is the first question to which I would like to find an answer, but do not hurry. First of all, you should learn what a differential is in principle if you do not know. If this information is already known to you, then you can simply refresh your knowledge before you begin to the main part of the article.

What is differential?

So, the main topic of this material is the LSD differential: what it is, as it works and so on. But at first you still have to learn about what is generally differential. Many motorists already know the definition of this concept, but if it is still unknown to you, this information will become very important for your further study theme.

Differential in automotive terminology is a mechanism that is part of the transmission. It serves to transfer power, but he has one interesting feature, because of which he received such a name. The fact is that the power in the differential is divided in the process of rotation either by two differentially related flows, or two power flows are summed into one. It is worth paying attention to the fact that two power flows are interconnected between themselves differentially, that is, in sum, they give a hundred percent of power, but they do not have a specific indicator. In other words, they can give both 50 by 50 percent of power, and 70 by 30 percent, and 100 by 0 percent and, on the contrary, 0 per 100 percent of power.

Well, it is basic information regarding the differential as such. However, the topic of the article is a little different, therefore it is worth moving to the consideration of the relevant issue. The topic of the article is the LSD differential, which is, how this mechanism is valid and what kinds have it. It is about this that will be discussed below.

Self-locking differential

Differential of increased friction LSD is self-locking, and it is impressive different from the classic option. What are the differences? The fact is that when a big difference in the speed of rotation speeds of the wheel drive, blocking is included, allowing you to resolve the problem as quickly and efficiently as possible. The simplest example is a tracker of the front or rear wheels, it was she who became the priority cause of the need for changes in the classical differential. When any of the axes begins to scroll due to the fact that the wheels cannot overcome one or another section of the road, the self-locking differential can become a real rescue.

Naturally, for even smooth road surfaces, you do not need such a blocking - however, this is another reason that you pay more attention to theories. After all, there are differentials with different types of blocking, which are suitable for both various cars and for different road surfaces and conditions. That is why you should carefully examine what is the differential of increased friction of LSD.

Abbreviation

You have received a general idea of ​​what is a lsd self-locking differential, however, if you are asked what these three letters mean, which are indicated in the title - what can you answer? In fact, everything is quite simple - this abbreviation is decrypted as Limited Slip Differential, which can be translated in different ways.

This text is designed to understand the mechanics of work of that node, which helps you leave the snowdrift on that very day when the public utilities forgot to work. Well, or you really want to ride over the field to the country. I think this can finish the cycle of articles about this node, and prepare you to make another technical information about other vests of the car you use every day, but do not even suspect how they work.

However, this is all the only theoretical data - it's time to figure out how the LSD differential works, and it is worth it with its comparison with a classic analogue.

Comparison of the operation of the Differential LSD with classic

The classic differential also has several names, each of which is quite wide. It can be called standard, open and even free - and his distinctive feature is the fact that he has a permissible difference in the angular velocities of the output shafts. What does it mean? This means that each of the weekends can work both one hundred percent and for zero percent. And this, in turn, means that one of the shafts can even stop. It can be easily noticed when a tonus, when one wheel works at full power, and the second is not scrolled at all.

How does the LSD-differential cope with this problem? The principle of operation of this mechanism is extremely simple - it has an automatic blocking system that allows the difference in the power of two streams, but a small enough, for example, 60 percent by 40 percent. However, when this difference exceeds the allowable limits, there is a blocking that protects the car from the negative consequences of this phenomenon. The work of the LSD differential is most noticeable in SUVs, as well as in sports cars.

Where is such a device?

As you already understood, for each type of car there are differentials and ways to block the difference in capacity. If you drive on a passenger car on a flat and smooth asphalt road or highway, you do not need to take care of the problem described above. As mentioned earlier, the most apparent such differential is in SUVs and sports cars. If you drive on an SUV, then most likely you have to move around the rough terrain, where is the likelihood that your machine will start to buck. And in order to avoid this, as you already understood, you need a high-quality blocking of differential.

The LSD version is ideal for this suitable, evenly distributing power flows and not allowing that one shaft gets all the power, and the other remains fixed. Approximately the same thing happens in the case when you drive on a sports car. However, in this case, your goal is not to cope with the rough terrain, and overcome the asphalt at the start.

If you have seen at least once how the car starts on large speeds from the scene, you definitely noticed that the wheels on the start are scrolled - this is just because of a high difference in power flows. The self-locking differential lowers this difference to a permissible minimum, thereby minimizing and scrolling the wheels at the start at large turns. So, for example, the LSD differential subaru racing model will strive to maximize the difference between power flows, but without prejudice to the general car indicators.

Principle of operation

You have already managed to get a general idea of ​​how such differential works, but it is worth stopping separately at this moment. After all, the principle of operation is what is the most important point in the entire understanding of the device. So, this mechanism initially works in the same way as the classic - power is fed on two channels, but there is a factory limit of the difference of these two capacities, which can be achieved during the movement.

As a result, when an unforeseen situation occurs and the power of one stream begins to greatly exceed the power of the other, the same blocking is triggered. As a result, the power is redistributed, or rather reset it to a standard distribution, that is, 50 by 50 percent. The normalization of torque allows you to get out of the difficult situation. And in modern differential models, the blocking remains active until the situation comes to normal, that is, until contact with the road is completely restored.

Types of LSD Differentials

As it has already become quite clear, these mechanisms are far from the only car in the world. However, they themselves are also divided into species that you should also consider in more detail. So, there are only two main species, but they work in a completely different principles. The first is a design that is based on sensitivity to the speed difference, while the second is on sensitivity to the difference in the transmission of torque. However, is it really so great enough to pay special attention to this? It's time to know about it.

Difference between LSD Differentials

So, if you have a choice between two mechanisms, one of which activates the blocking depending on the difference in speeds, and the other - depending on the difference of torque, which one should you choose?

It is worth knowing that the first view is much more popular, it is used in most cars on which the LSD differential is installed. Therefore, it is still worth making a choice in favor of it. There are two reasons. The first is that the differential works through the design on the basis of the Viscounts - a fairly simple mechanism that is easy and inexpensive. Therefore, the price for such a differential will be lower, while the mechanical blocking of the second type is more expensive in production and, accordingly, it will cost more when purchasing.

The second reason is the simplicity and unpretentiousness of the Viscounts - you don't have to take care of her at all, and if something happens to her, then the repair will be simple and inexpensive. If we consider the second type of differential, the design there is rather complicated, has a large number of parts, so that the repair of the LSD differential will be difficult and expensive.

Differentials sensitive to speed difference

Now it's time to look more carefully to consider both these species, as they also have their division - as you can see, this question is far from this simple, which it could seem originally.

One option was already indicated above - differential increased friction, but often you can meet another differential with increased internal resistance. Both options are correct, and if you use any of them, you will most likely understand. But it is much easier, naturally, to use the reduction of LSD, as it is a versatile, capacious and understandable to everyone.

Actually, it is because of the gel and it turns out one of the most important advantages of this type of differentials - they work very smoothly due to changes in the properties of this gel. Thanks to him, the stepper disappears, which is the problem of many gearboxes. And given the fact that now the automotive industry is mainly aimed at improving the comfort of the driver and passengers, this property turned out to be very important.

However, it is not necessary to think that this type of differential is ideal - he has its drawbacks. For example, the work here is performed due to the pressure of the fluid, as a result of which part of the energy is lost, and, accordingly, the fuel consumption increases. Also, do not forget that such a mechanism is very sensitive to high loads, so that with each strong towing, its effectiveness will fall. Well, of course, the oil for the LSD differential, which was already above, should be high, since the Viscounts have increased sensitivity to seals.

However, there is another type of differentials sensitive to the speed difference - they operate on the basis of the gesture pump. This is a relatively recent technology - more precisely, it began to receive development along with computer progress, since the driver can control the driver independently in modern cars. It is expected that in the near future this type will be the most popular - it is installed, for example, on all Toyota cars. But do not forget that you now need to carefully choose oil for LSD. Differential Toyota and other brands that use this technology is sensitive to it.

Differentials sensitive to the difference in the transmission of torque

Well, the second type, as you already know, is not sensitive to the difference in speeds, but to the transmission of torque. Naturally, the design of this mechanism is highly different - most often the mechanical worm-type mechanical differentiations are found on the market. The principle of their work is to ensure an automatic lock in the event that the difference of torque torque at the body and in the drive shaft exceeds the permissible norm. As a result, if this difference rises to unacceptable indicators, then automatic redistribution of torque occurs.

It is worth paying attention to the fact that the blocking is not complete, that is, it depends on what is the difference between the torque of the case and the drive shaft. Often it happens the rear Differential LSD - this means that it is not installed on the front, but on the back bridge of the car.

You can meet the two most popular subspecies of this mechanism - Torsen and Quavif. The first was formed directly from two English words, Torque and Sensing, which are translated as "torque" and "sensitive", respectively.

Well, now you know almost all that you need to know about such a mechanism as the Differential LSD. Toyota, BMW, Mercedes and all the leading car brands are almost always equipped with such devices, because at the moment they are most effective.

So, the first version of the mechanisms based on sensitivity to the speed difference is a viscous differential. You need to carefully select the oil for the LSD differential of this type, since a silicone gel is played here, which should not be mixed with butter. For this, the viscous food is also, that is, the main tank of this device is made sealed.

LSD Differential - What is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Increased friction differential LSD works as well as similar automatic incomplete blockages. It triggers in cases where the wheels on one axis begin to spin with too different in relation to each other. Most often, LSD differentials put on SUVs and sports cars, but to consider it 100% blocking from jams in dirt or diagonal hanging erroneously.

LSD Differential - what it is

As already mentioned above, the differential of increased friction LSD does not provide a complete blocking, allowing a certain difference between the speeds of rotation of the shafts. It works only in the case when the difference is noticeable. It has already been said above that LSD is often put in various cars: both in the sports and SUVs in SUVs in an example, a LSD Differential Toyota can be brought - at a certain point, the blocking works and the torque of both shafts is compared, becomes the same. Equal proportions still give the opportunity to scroll the wheel, but the wheel that has a good grip, also begins to spin and the jeep leaves the ambush to normal place (in many, but not in all cases).

How LSD works differential and what types there are classic - differential is sensitive to the difference in velocities between the shafts, blocking at a certain point. This is a classic blocking similar to the Viscounts. It is still used more often, especially in SUVs, as the lung in the maintenance and extremely simple in its design and the principle of action;

Traditional - differential is triggered by the difference between the transmission of the torque. It is already not installed almost anywhere, it is found only on old cars and then, more often in a non-working or semi-limber. The Differential LSD of this type can be attributed to the worm type, it blocks the machine with a certain difference between the KM of the differential itself and, directly the drive shaft.

The classic rear Differential LSD is very popular, but in many old machines is brought to a terrible state. It is also periodically installed in it, but, as mentioned above, its effectiveness in serious dirt is not very high. Much depends on the laying between the seat and the steering wheel, so in the skillful hands the car is only capable of small exploits, but it is not capable of replacing 100% blocking.

Also, novice jepreings are often wondering how to determine the LSD differential - it is done very simple: the back side of the car is to jerk so that the wheels be off from the ground. The front of the car is on the ground (do not forget to put the anti-parameters under the wheels and keep the car on the transmission at the time of the rise). The wheel, which turns out to be in the air, you can try to twist. If the second wheel turns into the same direction, then you have LSD. If the second wheel begins to spin in the other direction, then in the bridge or there is nothing, or the differential with blocking is broken and does not function. You can also determine the presence or absence of LSD in the bridge in the bridge on the stickers on the node itself or on the arch of the driver's door, but as practice shows, most often on old cars such stickers are not saved.

Good afternoon, colleagues!

This article briefly tell about the self-locking Differentials of the LSD, as well as the transmission oils that I pour into the rear axle reducer of your Kia Sorento equipped with such differential.

As you know, the usual, the so-called "open" or "free" differential used in the car gearboxes has a significant disadvantage, when slipping one of the leading wheels, it redistributes the torque to this wheel, which immobilizes the tonus car. Probably, many of you have seen such a picture, especially in winter, when one of the leading wheels helplessly raise, and another wheel does not rotate, although it is located on a less slippery surface.

To eliminate this disadvantage, engineers are introduced into the transmission design various locks. Blocking can be as an inter-axis (for all-wheel drive vehicles), when the connection between the axes of the wheels and the intercoles (for cars with any drive), when the connection between the wheels on one axis is blocked. At the same time, the blocked wheels rotate synchronously, regardless of the clutch with the road surface, which often allows the car to choose from the road captivity.

In addition to hard lock, there are also various types of automatic locks. These include automatic torque distribution systems between the axes of the car, as well as automatic interclaid locks.

Automatic locks such as inter-axis and interstoles are often implemented in the form of a self-locking differential of one or another design. It is often referred to as high friction differential, or, in an English version, LSD (Limited Slip Differential - differential with limited slippage).

You probably have previously heard words like Haldex (Haldex), Torsen (Torsen), Quaife (Quavif). These devices use a mechanical connection to redistribute the moment between the moment the source and its consumers (screw differentials, multi-disc clutches, etc.). Also, hydraulic communication can be used to redistribute the moment - a viscous coupling (Viscounts), as well as a multi-disc friction clutch. These are all varieties of automatic locks.

The presence of locks allows you to significantly increase the passability of the car. As a rule, severe SUVs are equipped with rigid locks, and in more "civil" cars (for example, crossovers), automatic locks are more commonly distributed.

In the gearboxes of the leading axes of the car, the Differential LSD is used as an automatic interclaid blocking. On the coating with a good clutch when the wheels do not slip, it works as an ordinary differential. When slipping one of the wheels, the Differential LSD is automatically blocked, which increases the car's permeability.

The principle of action of the LSD disk type is well demonstrated on the video:

The device of such a differential "live" can be viewed in this video (from 7:00):

More information about self-locking differentials can be viewed by reference:

Often I ask a question how to find out if there is an inter-wheeled LSD in the gearbox. Sometimes the presence of LSD is specified in the specification to the car, but you can try to determine it and independently. Please note that this method is not universal and not 100% reliable, much more reliable still know your package. To determine whether the LSD gearbox is equipped with a differential, it is necessary to hang the wheels of this axis and twist one of the wheels on the neutral transmission. The direction of rotation seems to be any, but usually rotate along the movement.

- If the second wheel rotates in the opposite side with about the same speed, then LSD is not. - If the second wheel is confidently rotated to the same side, there is a LSD and it is in good condition - if the second wheel remains fixed or barely rotates in any direction, That LSD is, but it is either worn or defective.

For example, see video, there is no LSD on this car (C 1:05):

Let us turn to the oils used to lubricate the self-locking differentials of the LSD. We will not consider the Viscufts, as they are, as a rule, are filled with a special silicone fluid for the entire service life.

ATF - liquid for automatic transmissions can be used in automatic multidisk clutch locks. An example is the BorgWarner inter-space dispensing box, which is installed on the Kia Sorento cars, Kia Mohave, Huyndai Terracan. The specification used ATF is specified in the specification to the car.

In self-locking differentials, as a rule, transmission oils designed specifically for LSD are used. They can be distinguished by the LS letters or the words Limited Slip in the oil name. If an LSD is used in any vehicle configuration, the required oil type will also be specified in the specification (Fig. 2).

When servicing its KIA SORENTO, in the rear axle reducer of which LSD is applied, I use several such oils: 1. Mobil Mobilube SYN LS 75W-90 GL-5. Now this oil is practically not found on sale, most likely removed from production. Mobil Delvac 1 Gear Oil LS 75W-90 GL-5. I assume that this oil came to shift the previous one. Castrol Syntrax Limited Slip 75W-140 GL-5.4. MANNOL MAXPOWER 4 × 4 75W-140 GL-5 LS.

The appearance of the canister and the description, see the photo below.

PS. Sometimes I meet the information that in addition to LS oils there are separately some additives into the oil, but I personally do not use them, so I do not consider them here.

Happy New Year to Happy 2018, to new meetings!

Material from Subaruwiki. LSD.

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. [edit]

general information

The principle of operation of the LSD bridge is that there is a package discs package that after one clings then for the semi-axis for the DIFA body. Disks are compressed by the spring and slippace relative to each other with a certain effort. This is an effort and does not give the wheel who lost contact with the road madly spinning while the second stands on the spot.

Such a scheme has very limited possibilities even closely not approaching 100% blocking. At the same time, this type of diff is very capricious to the quality of the oil used. In any case, the oil must be strictly for gearboxes with LSD. Otherwise, friction rates are quickly arched and cease to block something. Perhaps it is precisely with this that the circumstance is connected that most of these diffuses on the used machines are already blocked.

You can check this as follows: Turning on a neutral transmission and hovering one of the wheels, trying to twist it. According to the effort required for the gross, it is possible to judge the degree of killing of the LSD system. What it is more, the better. If the wheel spin freely - partial lock is completely dead.

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. Sometimes frictional can be thoroughly washed with gasoline and revive a little. More often, you have to change.

Differentials. Locking, LSD.

Device LSD.

In the standard differential, when one of the wheels loses the clutch with an expensive, all power and torque is transmitted to this wheel, while the other is inactive. The main idea of ​​blocking differential is the power distribution between the wheels, when one of the wheels "loses the road". There are many different locks, the number of which includes the differential of increased friction L.S.d. Limited-Slip Differential).

  • Actually there are several basic types of high friction differentials:
  • REACTIVE LSD.
  • Plate Clutch Lsd.
  • Cone Clutch LSD.
  • Ferguson LSD (Viscous LSD)
  • Directional LSD.
  • Locker LSD.
  • Gleason (Torsen) LSD

QUAIFE LSD.

Consider a differential consisting of an assembly of friction discs and rings that carry a fully load on the power distribution between the wheels.

Lsdd1.jpg.

Standard Differential:

LSDD2.jpg.

Differential with LSD:

  • Consists of two parts of bolted bolted. The lid and the main part within which there are four large grooves parallel axis lines. The lid is attached to the bolts to the gear gear gear.

Sex gears (Side Gears)

LSDD3.jpg.
  • This gear in LSD is slightly different from the standard. First, in the center, the "asterisk", which inserts the end of the axis is inserted, and secondly there are 6 pumping tape for the nipic diameter for the installation of ferricson discs and rings.

Pressure Rings

Two large rings that are installed in the differential housing.

  • It is almost no different from the standard. It is installed on the axis with a special profile (installation on the B-B section in the figure below), comes in engaging with gearbox gear.

Satellite axis (Pinion Shaft)

Lsdd4.jpg.
Lsdd5.gif.
  • As mentioned above, the satellites are fixed on the axis (cross section B-B), but besides this, the middle part has a stipple (cross section C-C), and the only difference from the standard is the presence of a V-shaped profile at the ends (cross section A-A). This profile is needed to install clamping rings.

Friction discs (Friction DISKS)

Cusco.jpg.
  • These discs have a hole with 6 cuts for mounting on the gear of the semi-axis. Move from steel and have a different thickness of 1.5 mm, or 1.6 mm.

Friction Rings (Friction Plates)

67711549.jpg
  • Rings look like discs, only have 4 protrusions on the outside. These protrusions are included in the grooves on the differential building. Thickness is identical to friction disks.

Spring disks and rings (Spring Disks and Spring Plates)

Some LSDs have them, and some are not. They are the same as friction discs and rings - the only difference - those flat and these slightly concave. TECHNICAL NAME OF THE SPRING BELLEVILLE SPRING. Main appointment Doing LSD more efficient. When this system is installed, the assembly consists of a pair of a disc-ring on each side.

67711556.jpg.
  • The figure below shows how friction rings are connected, discs, adding discs and gear gears.
    • Sequence of assembly
    • Friction Ring or Spring Ring
    • Friction disk or spring disk
    • Friction Ring
    • Friction disk or spring disk
    • Friction Ring
    • Friction disc
    • Clamp ring (shaded)
    • Gear gear (not shown in the picture)
    • Clamp ring (shaded)
    • Friction disc
    • Friction Ring
    • Friction disk or spring disk
    • Friction Ring
    • Friction disk or spring disk
    • Friction Ring or Spring Ring
    • Sequence of assembly
LSDD7.jpg.

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. Satellite axes with satellites (drawing center)

Operating principle

The basis is the interaction of disks and rings. The disk is attached to the gear of the semi-axis, and the ring on the case of the differential. If the gear of the semi-axis is twisted at a speed, other than, the speed of the differential housing (it is attached to the gear of the leading gear), then the rotation of the discs between the rings arises. The principle of friction in the bundle disk-ring and is based on the LSD action.

Moreover, the sliding resistance is proportional to the applied strength, the more power the more resistance.

In a word in the usual mode, the transfer of force occurs according to the leading gear scheme -> gear crown attached to the differential body, and friction rings, which are also connected to the case. The clamping rings rotate together the case of the differential, and transmit rotation on the satellites axis, they are in turn to satellites, and the satellites on the gear gear.

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. Accordingly, when the clutch loss of one wheel, the difference between discs and rings occurs. The pressure presses friction discs to the rings, and as a result increases the sliding resistance. If there is no Belleville Spring Plates and Disks in your LSD, then the triggering will occur suddenly, and the use of this mechanism makes the blocking more smooth.

  • Repair and Recovery Technique

Unlock pressure (Breakaway Pressure)

Unlocking pressure is determined by the torque necessary for the discs and rings start sliding. In practice, this is the moment that is formed during the wheel slip. If you attach a torque to one axis, and you will block the other axis on the spot, then this axis will not spin until a certain pressure is reached. Then the axis will begin to spin.

  • Actually, this operation itself is carried out only on sports cars and depends on a number of reasons: from wheels that will be installed before adjusting the suspension. The setting is carried out by special spacer and their thickness changes to the tenths of the millimeter. The thickness of the friction discs and rings is also important. In a regular machine, standard discs and rings are used.

Assembly and disassembly tips

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. As in any case, it is necessary to observe the order and actually the disassembly is made on the opposite assembly of the algorithm above.

Lsdd8.jpg.

LSD 1 WAY / 1.5 WAY / 2 WAY Many manufacturers of high-friction differentials share their products in accordance with the work mode on 1 Way, 1.5 Way and 2 Way

. This division depends on the type of cut in the chamber under the satellite axis (satellite - gear wheel of the planetary transmission with a movable axis of rotation). The form of the cut directly affects the operation of the differential. 1 Way. This means that due to the form of the cut, the differential blocking occurs only when accelerated. The differential with an index 2 way is blocked both during acceleration and in braking. Differential 1.5 Way. Also, as well as 2 Way blocks and when accelerated and during a slowdown, but the blocking during a slowdown has a more "soft" character. This type provides a "gentle" braking lock and is best suited for beginners, and less effective than 2 Way.

Lsdaction.gif. Lsdfig6.jpg.
  • In professional motor racing. The most efficient use of this type is the leading axis of the front-wheel drive car. This means that due to the form of the cut, the differential blocking occurs only when accelerated. The differential with an index 2 way is blocked both during acceleration and in braking. Differential Application type
  • In professional motor racing. The most efficient use of this type is the leading axis of the front-wheel drive car. Also, as well as 2 Way blocks and when accelerated and during a slowdown, but the blocking during a slowdown has a more "soft" character. This type provides a "gentle" braking lock and is best suited for beginners, and less effective than It is more expedient to total cars. A softer blocking when braking allows you to smoothly "shift" the car in turn when slowing (than using type 2 Way). Also, as well as 2 Way blocks and when accelerated and during a slowdown, but the blocking during a slowdown has a more "soft" character. This type provides a "gentle" braking lock and is best suited for beginners, and less effective than Provides optimal lock when accelerating and slowing. Ideal for drifting, especially for pilots that prefer constant blocking when turning turns. The main use of type

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. - Autosport.

A little bit about the types of differentials LSD According to the principle of operation, self-locking differentials can be divided into two main types: Speed ​​Sensitive. - Wrong when the difference occurs in the angular speeds of rotation of the semi-axes. Torque Sensitive

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. - Warning for the fall of the effort (torque) on one of the semi-axes.

  • Speed ​​Sensitive Lsd.

Automatic lock using viscous coupling as "Slip Limiter"

In this case, the blocking of one of the semi-axes with a cup of differential is applied. The viscous food is mounted coaxially in such a way that one drive is hard attached to the differential cup, and the other to the semi-axis.

With normal movement, the angular velocities of the rotation of the cups and the semi-axes are the same, or slightly differ (in turn). Accordingly, the work planes of the Viscounts have the same little discrepancy in the angular velocities and the coupling remains open. As soon as one of the axes begins to get a higher angular speed of rotation relative to another, friction appears in the Viscounts and it starts to be blocked. Moreover, the more difference in speeds, the stronger the friction inside the viscous coupling and the degree of its blocking, and consequently the degree of blocking the differential. Due to the resulting point of friction between the differential and semi-axis cup, the differential redistributes the torque in favor of the axis with the best road clutch (lagging partition).

Lsdfig7.jpg.

As the degree of blocking is increasing the viscous coupling and aligning the angular velocities of the cups and the semi-axis, friction inside the Viscouft begins to fall, which leads to a smooth opening of the Viscounts and to disconnect the blocking.

  • This scheme is used for inter-sieve differentials, since its design is too massive for installation on a bridge gearbox. (Scheme in the picture) Similar locking mechanism is well suited for operation in conditions of poor road surface, however, in the conditions of real off-road its ability is far from outstanding: the Viscounts do not cope with the constant changes of the adhesion of the bridges with the ground, it is turned on when turned on, overheats and leaves Building. This type of inter-axis differential lock can be found both as the main and only blocking tool on the "parquet" SUVs: Toyota RAV4, Lexus RX300 I.T.P., and as an additional blocking (in addition to 100% forced blocking) On full-sized Toyota Land Cruiser SUVs
Visco Lock.gif.

GERODISK or HYDRA-LOCK)

ASHA Corp. American Company Supposed a classic differential of a blocking device consisting of an oil pump with a piston and a set of friction plates (friction block) installed between a differential cup and gear of one of the semi-axes. The principle of operation of this blocking is practically no difference from the above blocking using the Viscounts. Oil pump

It is mounted coaxially semi-axes in such a way that its body is attached to a differential cup, and the injection rotor is to the semi-axis. If the difference occurs in the angular velocities of the semi-axis and the differential cup, the pump begins to pump oil to the piston and squeeze the friction unit, thereby blocking the gear of the semi-axis with a cup of differential. Due to the resulting torment, the differential redistributes the torque on the lagging partition (half-one with the best clutch).

Hydralok1.jpg.

(English Limited Slip Differential) - Differential of limited slippage / elevated friction. This design was called Gerodisk (Hydra-Lock) and regularly installed on Chrysler SUVs. The detailed layout of the device can be seen by clicking on the picture. For almost all, FRICTION based differentials, it is necessary to use special oil, which contains additives that ensure the normal operation of friction blocks.

Gerotor.gif.
  • Torque Sensitive LSD.

Differentials with friction blocks of pre-tension

Frictionlsd1.jpg.

The device of such differentials is quite simple and fundamentally, nothing differs from the device of the usual open differential. To create additional friction, the sets of block plates blocks are added between the semi-axles and a cup of differential (which are marked on the picture on the right with red dots). That is why similar differentials are often referred to as "FRICTION BASED LSD". Quite often, friction blocks spring. When the runway begins one of the semi-axes (driving wheel), the differential redistributes the torque in favor of the falling semi-axis due to the moment of friction on the friction plates. This type of blocking has a very large drawback - under the action of friction plates, the differential prevents the occurrence of even a small difference in angular velocities (which is necessary in turns), which negatively affects the controllability of the car, as well as on the consumption of tires and fuel. In this regard, the blocking coefficient of differential data is usually chosen small (otherwise, the car will have inadequate handling on the road).

  • However, models of such differentials with fairly high structurally embedded friction plates and a high blocking coefficient, respectively, are produced. In addition to the above disadvantages, it is possible to allocate another - the service life of the friction blocks in such differentials is small and over time, the friction blocks are wearing, thereby reducing the blocking coefficient of differential. For all Friction based differentials, it is necessary to use special oil, which contains additives that ensure the normal operation of friction blocks. These differentials are standardly installed in the rear axle of many SUVs - Toyota 4Runner (Hilux Surf), Toyota Land Cruiser, Nissan Terrano, Kia Sportage I.T.P.

Self-locking differentials with hypoid (worm or screw) and osostic engagement

Frictionlsd2.jpg.

This is one of the most interesting, efficient, technological and practically used form blocking of differentials. The principle of operation is based on the property of hypoid or osostic pair "folded". In this regard, the main (or all) engagement in such differentials of ososophy or hypoid. The varieties of designs are not so much - you can select three main types. First type

Torsen2 1.jpg. Torsen1 2.jpg.
Torsen2 2.jpg. Torsen3 1.jpg.

Produces Zexel Torsen [1]. (T-1) hypoid pairs are gears of leading semi-axes and satellites. At the same time, each semi-axis has its own satellites, which are pairly associated with satellites of the opposite semi-axis in conventional boost. It should be noted that the axis of the satellite is perpendicular to the semi-axis. In normal motion and equality of torques transmitted on the semi-axis, hypoid pairs of "satellite / drive gear" are either stopped, or rotated, providing the difference in angular velocities in the turn. As soon as one of the semi-axes begins to stop and the torque falls on it, the hypoid pairs "semi-axes / satellite" begin to rotate and fold, creating friction with a differential cup and with each other, which leads to partial blocking of the differential. Due to the moment of friction, the differential redistributes the torque in favor of the falling semi-axis. This design works in the largest torque distribution range - from 2.5 / 1 to 5.0 / 1. The response range is regulated by the corner of the worm tilt. The author of the second type

Quaife1.jpg. Quaife2.jpg.
Torsen3 2.jpg. Torsen4 1.jpg.

Is an Englishman Rod Quaife [2]. In this differential, the axes are used by the gearboxes and screw gear satellites. Satellite axes are parallel to the semi-axes. Satellites are located in peculiar pockets of the differential cups. At the same time, paired satellites have no straight gearing, but form another hypoid pair to each other, which is squeezed up, also participates in the blocking process (on the picture on the left). A similar device has a TRACTECH TRACTECH differential [3]. Even we in Russia appeared the production of similar differentials under domestic cars UAZ I.T.D. But Zexel Torsen [4] in its differential T-2 suggested a slightly different layout in essence, the same device (on the picture on the right). Due to its unusual design, paired satellites are interconnected from the outside of the sun gesture. Compared to the first type, these differentials have a smaller blocking coefficient, but they are more sensitive to the difference of the transmitted torque and are triggered earlier (ranging from 1.4 / 1). Tractech recently released the bridge Torque sensitive differential ELECTRAC, equipped with forced electrically locking. Third type

Torsen5 1.jpg. Torsen4 2.jpg.

It is made by ZEXEL TORSEN (T-3) and is used mainly for inter-sieve differentials. As in the second type, this differential uses the axes of the gearboxes and the satellite screw gears. Satellite axes are parallel to the semi-axes. The planetary structure of the structure allows you to shift the nominal distribution of torque in favor of one of the axes. For example, used on the 4th-generation 4-generation Differential T-3 has a nominal distribution of the moment 40/60 in favor of the rear axle. Accordingly, the entire range of partial lock operation is shifted: from (Front / Rear) 53/47 to 29/71. In general, the displacement of the nominal distribution of the moment between the axes is possible in the range from 65/35 to 35/65. Partial locking provides 20-30% redistribution of moments transmitted on semi-axis. Also, such a structure of the differential makes it compact, which in turn simplifies the design and improves the layout of the dispensing box.

The described differentials are very popular in motor racing. Moreover, many manufacturers establish such differentials to their models regularly, both as inter-axis and intercoles differentials. For example, Toyota establishes such differentials as on cars (Supra, Celica, RAV4, Lexus IS300, RX300, etc.) and SUVs (4Runner (Hilux Surf), Land-Cruiser, Mega-Cruiser, Lexus GX470) And buses (Coaster Mini-Bus). These differentials do not require the use of special additives to oil (as opposed to friction-based differentials), but it is better to use high-quality oil for loaded hypoid gears.

Let's start with the simplest, namely from the differential. What it is.

Differential front bridge Differential

- This is a mechanical device that transmits torque from one source (cardan) into two independent consumers (semi-axes) in such a way that the angular speed of rotation of the source and both consumers can be different relative to each other (the wheels pass a different trajectory), and the differential divides The moment of the input shaft (cardan) between the output shafts (semi-axis). Simple words when turning the wheel path that rides in the inner radius less than the wheel path that goes on an external radius, and the speed of rotation of the inner wheels should be less than the speed of rotation of the outer wheel, so the DIF and distributes these velocity through the planetary mechanism with any speed ratio Rotation of wheels. According to this car, it is calmly managed on the direct plot and in the turn. But the planetary mechanism has a minus - the planet market transmits a torque effort to where it is much easier. That is, when two wheels go along asphalt, then the effort is distributed equally that on the right thing to the left wheels. But when one wheel remains on a solid surface, and the second hangs in the air, or in a liquid swamp or on ice, the entire effort of the planetary mechanism redistributes there, much easier, that is, on the wheel which hung up in the air, in a swamp or ice. And the wheel, which on the solid surface, the torque force does not receive.

Self-lock differential, LSD (Limited Slip Differential - Differential with Limited Slipping)

Inside the dieth cost 2 set of friction plates, which connect the case of the wild and semi-axis. When rotating, friction force arises between the plates, which restrains the occurrence of the rotation difference between the semi-axles (wheels). But when the power of rotation is greater than the friction force of the plates, rotation, as in the usual dife, is transmitted to a more easily rotated wheel. Therefore, when hanging one friction wheel in LSD is not enough to help the second wheel. Hybrid LSD.

This self-block was installed on MPS, MMS and Challenger.

On this photo, Hybrid LSD in a disassembled form, not MPS, but no difference is different.

In our self-clock, the satellite axes are parallel to the semi-axes. The satellites themselves are located in the pockets of the case. Paired satellites have no straight engagement, but another hypoid pair that is folding involved in the blocking process. If on the fingers, then, due to the difference in torque on wheels, axial and radial forces arise in screw engagement, pressing semi-axes and satellites ends to the housing, due to this, the force is obtained, which provides partial lock between the semi-axes. Our self-block copes well only in a small dirt, sand or ice. Check availability and performance of the LSD mechanism

Substitut or hang the rear wheels. The hand sharply grind one wheel (in any direction), if the second wheel is spinning in the opposite direction at the same speed +/-, then the differential in the bridge is ordinary. If the second wheel stands on the spot, we barely spinningly spinning in the opposite side or barely spinning to the same side where the wheel which is strongly wounded - the LSD mechanism is dead. And if the second wheel is spinning to the same side, even at a slower speed, then the rear axle with the working LSD mechanism. Differential blocking

The locking mechanism turns the DIF into an ordinary clutch that rigidly binds the semi-axes (wheels) with each other. For complete lock in the Dife, the rotation of the satellites is blocked, or there is a lock where the differential displeasement is rigidly connected with one of the semi-axes. The blocking is implemented due to pressure - a pneumatic drive, which is controlled from the compressor connections from the cabin. Rear Differential Blocking

Rear differential lock for MPS, MMS and Challenger - Arb RD212, old ARB RD25 and ARB RD46 numbers.

More thoroughly check whether this blocking is suitable for your car in the following characteristics: the diameter of the rear differential - 9 "(22.86 cm) the number of slots on the semi-axis - 28 (can be considered both from the side of the dief and from the wheel) the number of fastening bolts The main pair (driven gear) - 12 pieces

The cost of the original ARB blocking from 1000 to 1400 cu Depending on the configuration with or without compressor.

You can also purchase a Chinese analogue of ArB blocking with marking RD212, RD25 and RD46, with a cost of 400-500 cu. + about 200 cu Delivery from under the celestial. And according to reviews is not inferior to the original. Blocking front differential

Blocking front differential for MPS, MMS and Challenger - ARB RD110.

More precisely, it is suitable for this blocking on your car in the following characteristics: the diameter of the front differential is 8 "(20.32 cm) the number of slots on the semi-axis is exactly the same as on the rear semi-axes - 28 (can be considered both from the side of the dief and from the wheel)

As a rear and front lock, you can buy a Chinese analogue ARB with RD110 marking, with approximately the same value of 400-500 USD. + about 200 cu Delivery from China, which is not inferior to the original according to reviews.

Torsen5 2.jpg.

Fastening harp hard lock increases 2 times, as well as the passability of your car.

In the standard high friction differential (hereinafter L.S.D.), when one of the wheels loses the adhesion with the road, all the power and torque is transmitted precisely on this wheel, while the other is inactive. The main idea of ​​blocking differential is the power distribution between the wheels, when one of the wheels "loses the road".

The Nissan Terrano / Patrol establishes an increased friction differential (optional) using friction discs to reduce the mutual slippage of the wheels. This design does not provide 100% blocking of the rear axle differential. Therefore, presence in the bridge L.S.D. In sports will not give strong advantages (here without forced / manual blocking can not do). However, for most owners of the SUVs, the presence of this Diff will significantly help in road and driving along the snow-covered, slippery and sandy coating. Significantly improves grip with expensive.

Operating principle:

The basis is the interaction of disks and rings. The disk is attached to the gear of the semi-axis, and the ring on the case of the differential. VK. The principle of friction in the bundle disk-ring and is based on the LSD action.

When the clutch loss of one wheel, the difference between discs and rings occurs. The pressure presses friction discs to the rings, and as a result increases the sliding resistance.

How to determine whether L.S.D. in your bridge?

• according to the model code; • Experienced:

Lowners, the described methods are made at the neutral position of the transmission.

To start, take off from the ground in any available way both wheels of the bridge. If, when rotating one wheel of the bridge, the other is spinning in the opposite direction - there is nothing in the bridge.

Either second. L.S.D., based on the principle of clutch discs, wear out quite quickly and the bridge begins to work simply as with an open differential. In this case, is it worth identifying there anything (especially if you purchased a used car) only when you open. The only consolation (given that no one is engaged in the adjustment of the bridge) can serve what you do not have to spend on the purchase of special oil for bridges with L.S.d.

If another wheel turns into the same direction - you are a happy winner of high friction differential.

Oil used and replacement time

Given the design feature, this diff requires a certain type of oil. If you board the usual transmission, you can continue to pour it in the future. Your bridge has become an ordinary bridge and change the oil to a special will not help here (the question of course ...).

The manufacturer recommends replacing the oil every 20-40 thousand km., Depending on the operating conditions.

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Material from Subaruwiki. Ordinary LSD Differential Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction LSD. Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction It works as well as similar automatic incomplete blocking. It triggers in cases where the wheels on one axis begin to spin with too different in relation to each other. Most often

Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction The differential is put on SUVs and sports cars, but to consider it 100% blocking and panacea from jams in dirt or diagonal hanging erroneously.

differential - what it is and where Material from Subaruwiki. Abbreviation " "I went from English. It decrypts as " », Limited Slip Differential «What is translated into our language as Differential with increased internal resistance " Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction As mentioned above, the differential of increased friction Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction Does not fully block, allowing a certain difference between the speeds of rotation of the shafts. It triggers only when the difference is noticeable when a certain disproportion is achieved between the shafts. On the types of complete blocking can be read in the article on differentials in general. Already mentioned that Frequently put in various cars: both at the sports and SUVs. For example, in my Nissan Terrano 1. Generations in the body WD 21. Material from Subaruwiki. .

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Mounted exactly such Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction As an example, you can also bring differential Toyota -

At a certain point, the blocking works and the torque of both shafts is compared, it becomes the same. Equal proportions still give the opportunity to scroll the wheel, but the wheel that has a good grip, also begins to spin and the jeep leaves the ambush to normal place (in many, but not in all cases). Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction How does it work

Differential and how to share on types Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction It should be immediately noted that for the normal operation of this blocking requires special, special oil for Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction Differential. If you pour ordinary oil there, the node will not last long and the problems may arise very quickly. And since differential Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction It is repaired quite difficult and (which is even more important) very expensive, it is better not to bring it better. Special oil certainly has on the packaging a note that it is suitable for the corresponding

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Locks. As for the types

  • LSD:

  • Classic - differential is sensitive to the difference in velocities between the shafts, blocking at a certain point. This is a classic blocking similar to the Viscounts. It is still used more often, especially in SUVs, as the lung in the maintenance and extremely simple in its design and the principle of action; Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction Traditional - differential is triggered by the difference between the transmission of the torque. It is already not installed almost anywhere, it is found only on old cars and then, more often in a non-working or semi-limber. Differential

This type can be attributed to the worm type, it blocks the automaton with a certain difference between the KM of the differential itself and, directly the drive shaft. Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction Classic rear differential

Very popular, but in many old machines is brought to a terrible state. It is also periodically installed in it, but, as mentioned above, its effectiveness in serious dirt is not very high. Much depends on the laying between the seat and the steering wheel, so in the skillful hands the car is only capable of small exploits, but it is not capable of replacing 100% blocking. Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction Also, novice jeepers are often wondering how to determine Differential - it is done very simple: the back side of the car is to jerk so that the wheels be off from the ground. The front of the car is on the ground (do not forget to put the anti-parameters under the wheels and keep the car on the transmission at the time of the rise). The wheel, which turns out to be in the air, you can try to twist. If the second wheel turns into the same direction, then you have installed LSD. Differential - what is it, how does it work and what kind of help can be on off-road? Differential of elevated friction If the second wheel begins to spin in the other direction, then in the bridge or there is nothing, or the differential with blocking is broken and does not function. Also determine the presence or absence

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