Antibiotics are substances of biological or semi-synthetic origin. Used in medical practice to combat pathogens, viruses. Prior to the appearance of these medical preparations, the status of incurable diseases was in abdominal typhoid, dysentery, pneumonia, tuberculosis. Today, treatment of infectious diseases is possible using 1-6 generation of antibiotics.
At this point, the pharmacological industry produces more than 2,000 varieties of medicines of this type. Doctors described about 600 positions, and in medical practice, about 120-160 drugs are used.
Important! With any disease, antibiotics are recommended after consulting a doctor. Otherwise, antibiotic resistance can develop (reducing the sensitivity of pathogenic microorganisms to antibacterial agents).
Classification of antibiotics
All antibacterial agents can be divided into 5 categories according to characteristics and application spectrum. Consider this classification. Read more:
Mechanism of exposure:
Spectrum of action
Distinguish antibacterial agents:
- A wide range of exposure - they are prescribed with infectious diseases with an unexplained cause of malaise. These are bactericidal medical preparations, since they destroy the entire pathogenic flora.
- The narrow range of exposure - destroy gram-positive bacteria (enterococci, listera). After their reception, gram-negative pathogens of infectious diseases are also killed: intestinal sticks, salmonella, protea, etc. This group also includes anti-tuberculosis, antitumor, antifungal agents.
According to the composition
Antibacterial drugs are divided into 6 groups:
- Penicillins are the first antimicrobial preparations obtained in 1928 from the biological substance (Penicillium mushrooms). Long remain the most popular medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.
- Cephalosporins - belong to the group of the strongest antimicrobial means of an extensive range of applications. Fully destroy the pathogenic flora is well tolerated by a person.
- Macrolids are the name of a narrow range of antimicrobial means. Do not destroy the patient cell, but only stop its growth. This category includes such drugs: erythromycin, spyramsycin, azithromycin.
- Tetracyclines are good preparations for the treatment of infectious diseases of respiratory, as well as urinary tract.
- Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial means of an extensive range of exposure. Fully pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed. You can find the medical preparations of 1-2 generations. Usually doctors are attributed to the fight against a blue rod.
- Aminoglycosides - antimicrobial medicines with a large application area. Popular drugs of this group - streptomycin (Tuberculosis therapy, plague) and gentamicin - are used as ointment, eye drops, injections with ophthalmic infections.
Generations of drugs. The advanced antimicrobial preparations have already six generations. For example, Penicillin was the first tool of natural origin, while the third or sixth generation is an improved version, which includes the strongest inhibitors. Dependence Direct: The newer generation, the more effective the effects of drugs on the pathogenic microflora.
By method of reception. Oral - take through the mouth. These are various syrups, tablets, soluble capsules, suspensions. Parenteral - introduced intravenously or intramuscularly. They give effect faster than oral medications. Rectal preparations are introduced into the rectum.
Important! Antibiotics is allowed only after consulting a doctor, otherwise antibiotic resistance will develop.
Antibacterial agents of the new generation
The difference between the latest generations of antibiotics from their early versions in a more advanced formula of the active substance. The active components point dot only eliminate the pathological reactions in the cell. For example, the intestinal antibiotics of the new generation do not violate the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, they struggle with the whole "army" of causative agents of infections.
The newest antibacterial drugs are divided into five groups:
- Tetracycline - Tetracycline.
- Aminoglycosides - streptomycin.
- Penicillin series - amoxicillin and others.
- Amphenicols - chloramphenicol.
- Carbapenem group - Meropenem, imipenem, Invaz.
Consider several well-known antimicrobial means of imported and Russian production.
Amoxicillin is an imported antimicrobial preparation from the penicillin group. Used in medical practice for the treatment of bacterial infection. Effective with intestinal infections, hyimorite, sore thief, Lyme disease, dysentery, sepsis.
Aveloks - medical preparation of the last generation from the group of fluoroquinolones. It has the strongest influence on bacterial and atypical pathogens. Does not harm the kidneys and gasts. Used with sharp, chronic diseases.
Cephalosporins - third-generation antibiotics. This group includes Cefibutene, Ceftriaxone and others. Used for the treatment of pyelonephritis, pneumonia. In general, these are safe tools with a small number of side effects. However, they must be taken only after consulting a doctor. Medical preparations are much, and what exactly choose - will recommend a specialist.
Doriprex is an imported antimicrobial drug of synthetic origin. Showed good results in the treatment of pneumonia, launched intraabdominal infections, pyelonephritis.
Invaz is an antibacterial agent from the carbapenam group. Available in ampoules for a parenteral use. Shows a quick effect in the treatment of bacterial leather disorders, soft tissues, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, septicemia.
Augmetin is a semi-synthetic penicillin of a third generation with the addition of reinforcing inhibitors. Pediatricians are recognized as the best comprehensive medical staff for the treatment of children's hymorite, bronchitis, tonsillitis and other respiratory infections.
Cephamandol is an antibacterial agent of Russian production. Refers to the third generation cephalosporins group. Used to treat intestinal infections, pathogens of genital infections. As an antimicrobial means of an extensive range of exposure is used for colds.
The best antibacterial preparations of a wide range of action
Antimicrobial means of new generation are typically synthesized from natural raw materials and stabilize in laboratories. It helps strengthen the effect of medication to the pathogenic microflora.
What drugs are the strongest? Doctors refer to such antibacterial agents of a wide range of exposure. Let us give a brief list of drugs by name:
- Amoxiclave refers to the group of aminopenicillins. Acts gently, used to treat infectious diseases. With caution and only after consulting a doctor, the drug can be used during pregnancy, as well as during breastfeeding periods. Released in tablets or in a rash form for oral administration, as well as in powders for injection.
- Sumamed is a popular antimicrobial drug for the treatment of infections of the gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, diseases respiratory tract - angina, bronchitis, pneumonia. It affects the liver and kidneys, so it is not attributed to patients with increased sensitivity to macrolides.
- Cefoperasazon - refers to a group of cephalosporins. He is attributed to doctors for the treatment of urinary tract infections, prostatitis, skin disorders, respiratory diseases. A good preparation for recovery after gynecological, orthopedic and abdominal operations. Available in the form for parenteral intake - injection.
- Unidox Solutab - Tetracycline of the last generation. It is used for extensive treatment of tract infections, colds, prostatitis. It acts softly, without causing dysbiosis.
- Lincomycin is a means that is prescribed for the treatment of osteomyelitis, sepsis, staphylococcal infections. It has a strongest impact on pathogenic cells, therefore it has a long range of side effects. Among them are hypotension, weakness, dizziness. It is impossible to use during pregnancy, as well as patients with hepatic renal failure.
- Rulid - the macrolide of the fourth generation. The main substance is roxitromycin. Approved for urogenital infections, doselessness of the tract and upper respiratory tract. Produced in tablets.
- Zefisim - by name it is a means of a group of cephalosporins. It has a bactericidal effect on pathogenic cells. Helps with the GTS infections, prostatitis, also treats colds. It is enough toxic, so it cannot be taken when problems with the kidneys or biscuits.
- Cefotaxim is the last group of cephalosporins. The medical preparation is shown for the treatment of gynecological, urological, colds. Perfectly copes with inflammatory processes, suppresses the pathogenic microflora.
We reviewed Russian and imported wide spectrum antibiotics, briefly described the classification of drugs. Answer the question: what antibacterial means to choose?
It is important to understand antimicrobial medicines for extensive use have toxicity, therefore negatively affect the microflora. In addition, the bacteria mutate, which means the drugs lose their effectiveness. Therefore, antibacterial agents with the newest structure will be in priority than their early analogues.
Antibiotics are dangerous to health. In the infectious disease, the first thing you need to consult a doctor. The specialist will establish the cause of the disease and prescribe effective antibacterial agents. Self-medication "at random" leads to the development of antibiotic resistance.
In case of improper treatment or its absence, colds may be complicated by pneumonia or bronchitis. The cold is essentially called inflammation of the mucous membranes, infected with viruses. Typical symptoms of cold viral diseases are:
- runny nose;
- frequent sneezing;
- a sense of general malaise;
- a sore throat.
In addition, the apparent sinuses of the nose and ears may be affected, which can turn into the beginning of sinusitis or otitis. Sometimes a cold is taken for flu Since their symptoms are very similar. But in order to quickly cure a cold, you need to observe the bed mode, use a lot of warming drinks, drink echinacea for immunity, take a cold powder, then everything is much more difficult with the influenza ...
What is flu and how to distinguish it from a cold?
Influenza is an extremely infectious seasonal respiratory disease, which usually occurs from December to March, reaching his peak in February. There are winter when the flu causes an epidemic that amazes millions of people around the world.
The flu is defeated by the respiratory tract (nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs). Usually the symptoms last from five to ten days, but the state of fatigue can pursue a person for two or three weeks. Lighter forms can sometimes be taken for colds: flu symptoms are similar, but they are usually more pronounced and manifests themselves very sharply:
- nasal congestion, discomfort characterized by edema and discharge from the nose similar to the one that is associated with the sinusitis;
- Strong sore throat;
- fever, pain in the muscles and joints;
- fatigue and weakness.
Despite the similarities, cold and flu are completely different diseases caused by various viruses.
The flu virus is usually less hard and causes large epidemics. The flu virus type B is less common and is usually lighter, but it can also cause large epidemics every three to five years.
The type C influenza virus causes a lighter influenza shape with symptoms similar to cold symptoms.
All three types of influenza viruses can mutate, annually giving the beginning of a new viral strain. This means that it is impossible to develop persistent immunity to the influenza, every year the cause of the flu is the new viral strain. According to experts, even if our body produces antibodies for one year, it is unlikely that these same antibodies will be able to protect us next year.
It is for this reason that the vaccine from influenza should repeat every new season.
Symptoms of influenza and efficient treatment
All the symptoms of influenza are associated with the protective reaction of our organism for the viral invasion. For example, fever is one of the protective agents by which the immune system is trying to destroy the viruses for which the high temperature has a destructive effect.
Cough is a reflex reaction, with which the body is trying to get rid of unwanted "guests", such as bacteria and viruses.
Influenza is usually manifested by the following symptoms:
- Strong headache is observed in 80% of cases.
- Cough - a frequent respiratory symptom - dry and very resistant. Pain in the chest can become strong and worsen every day.
- High temperature (38.5-40 ° C) lasts 3-4 days.
- Weakness and fatigue can last up to 2-3 weeks.
It is important to make antipyretic drugs to reduce the temperature if it is above 38.5 ° C or keeps within a few days. Drink a lot of fluid to fill it with loss during sweating.
A modern agent that will help protect against viruses is a otillococyne. The mechanism of its action is aimed at natural strengthening the human immune system. Unlike other drugs, otillococyne - unique granules that are quickly absorbed and begin to protect immediately from the first dose 1, strengthening the production of own immunoglobulins 2.
The main target of conventional anti-inflammatory drugs are fever, headache and muscle spasms, with which you can cope with the help of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory, painful agents. In some cases, sprays are also prescribed to relieve throat pain and cough agents. But this will only help get rid of the symptoms, but to speed up recovery and help avoid complications only an effective drug will help, which gently stimulates the body's immune system.
It is also important to know that antibiotics are not effective against influenza viruses and their application is recommended only if there is serious complications.
To quickly recover from the flu, it is additionally necessary to provide a full-fledged rest, normalize sleep, do not smoke and not drink alcohol, drink a lot.
Remember that even influenza vaccine is not always effective protection. And considering the risks of side effects, weigh all the pros and cons in front of influenza.
Antibiotic with cold and flu
Antibiotics are rightfully considered a treasure of modern medicine. But for their incorrect use can be cruel to pay.
Antibiotics are usually used to treat diseases caused by bacteria. People often mistakenly believe that they also act in viral infections such as colds or flu. But it is not so!
In the first days of the beginning of the disease in the body, a natural immune response occurs, therefore, when the antibiotic is used too early, the protective mechanisms that could control the infection on their own, are suppressed.
It is for this reason that the reception of immunostimulating antiviral agents, such as ocilloccinum, which naturally stimulates immunity and affects the production of own immunoglobulins. Ocilloccinum strengthens natural immunity against viruses, reducing the likelihood of getting 6 times 3.
So from antibiotics in the case of influenza and colds it is best to refuse. They are effective only in the case of attachment of a bacterial infection. But here you should not overdo it, because bacteria are very quickly "learn" to resist antibiotics and can transmit these "knowledge" to each other. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics develops.
So, summarize the reception of antibiotics:
- They are effective only against bacterial infections and cannot cure you from infections caused by viruses such as colds or flu.
- Antibiotics do not prevent the spread of viruses among other people.
- Abuse of these drugs only makes bacteria resistant to treatment, so if you or your children need antibiotics ever in the future, they can no longer work.
- And the most important thing: the inclusion in the treatment regimen of the antibiotic should be strictly agreed with the doctor.
Natural Immunity Immunity
In order for the body to be well resist viral infection, it is necessary to eat correctly, normalize sleep, spend a lot of time in the fresh air, not neglect hardening. Additionally, you can take vitamins for immunity for adults.
There are also natural products and tools that help the body to be in a tone and facilitate side symptoms of colds and influenza. For example, honey is an effective means for removing the throat pain and improving the health of the upper respiratory tract. Homemade fruit and vegetable juices - saturated with useful vitamins and trace elements. Balanced nutrition can also strengthen the immune system. Plus you should never forget often wash your hands and stick to the rules of personal hygiene.
Taking into account all the above information, you will know how to minimize the risk of infection, as well as how to help the body in an efficient and fast anti-virus.
- According to the instructions for medical use, the ocilloccinum for prevention is taken at 1 dose 1 time per week during the distribution period of ARVI.
- E.P. Selkova, A.L.Volchetsky, A.S. Lapitskaya, E.Yu. Maradzig, N.V. Yermilova. Influence of ocilloccinum on interferon formation in common-flight children. Pediatrics №4 2009, 42-47.
- Samsygin G.A., Bogomilsky M.R., Kazyukova T.V., Radzig E.Yu. Prevention and therapy of acute respiratory diseases using homeopathic agents. Pediatrics. Magazine them. G.N. Speransky, 2008. T. 87. №6., 92-96.
Doctors called the main mistakes in the treatment of influenza and ORVI
Photo: Evgeny Kursk / Tass
The use of antibiotics with influenza and ARVI without necessity is the most serious mistake in the treatment of these diseases, RBC Therapist, clinical pharmacologist Andrei Kondrakhin told RBC. According to him, these are viral diseases, and it is impossible to kill the virus with antibiotics - these drugs are prescribed with bacterial infections.
"When we start to take antibiotics yourself, we hit our own microflora in the intestine. This microflora gives us immunity. And after that we can get reused by so-called superinfection, when any bacterium for us will be very heavy. Any viral disease in this case may be complicated by bacterial infection - inflammation of the lungs, etc., "he explained.
According to the physician, antibiotics must be taken only on the prescription of the doctor and only in the case of attachment to the virus infection by bacterial.
You can also harm the body if you try to bring down the low temperature. The doctor recalled that the antipyretic can be taken only when the temperature rises above 38 degrees, and before that it is better to "help the body with plentiful drink."
"The second mistake is an application earlier than you need, so-called cold sets:" Tamiflu "," Coldrel "," Teraflu ". They contain very strong components, including antipyretic. Increase temperature is a normal body reaction to any viral infection. Immunity is started when the temperature rises to 37.5 degrees. The cells of the immune system at this temperature begin to be activated. As soon as we confuse this temperature, immunity believes that everything is fine, and starts to weaken. Less interferon turned on, the antibodies are produced less, and the person gets a chronic cold, "Kondrakhin said.
Given the nature of the pathogen, the use of antibiotics with influenza is not always justified. In the fight against viruses, they do not help. Their appointment is advisable to exercise under complications when secondary infections are joined.
How to recognize influenza
As a rule, for influenza, a sudden development and lack of prudent signs are characterized. In the first days after infection, it does not observe a cold and nasal congestion.
The development of the pathogen occurs rapidly, so the incubation period is short, often does not exceed 2 days.
Explicit symptoms of pathology are:
A pronounced fever, the temperature reaches 38 s and more.
Alternating heat with chills.
Root in the eyes, afraid of bright light.
Slabs in the joints and muscles.
In addition to the signs of intoxication, the flu is accompanied by an intense dry cough innervating in the chest area.
A greater danger of flu is provided with the development of complications on respiratory organs. This is manifested in a reinforced cough and shortness of breath. In a serious case, the respiratory frequency increases to 30 or more, respiratory failure arises, acricyanosis. In this case, it is necessary to urgently call a doctor. It is the sharp pneumonia and a respiratory impairment that are the main causes of death with influenza.
Antibiotics with influenza
Antibacterial agents do not have the therapeutic effect with influenza. Their pharmacological effect is determined by influence on pathogenic bacteria. In this case, they can cause more harm than good. By destroying the microflora in the intestine, the medicines reduce the protective functions of the body, making it more vulnerable to viruses.
Antiviral drugs use antiviral drugs to combat influenza causative agent. They have a wide range of exposure, suppressing the development of various viral infections. Their reception is shown not only for treatment, but in order to prevent influenza. However, to apply them without the appointment of a specialist contraindicated to exclude negative consequences.
When taking antibiotics
Reception of antibiotics It is advisable to start with mixed infections when other pathogens are attached to the influenza. It occurs during complications, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, laryngitis.
Then the patient prescribe additional medical examinations to identify the sensitivity of the pathogen to the antibiotic. In this case, amoxicillin, augmentin, ceftriaxone, amoxyclav can be prescribed.
Long high temperature is also a clear sign of complicated flu flow and requires antibacterial agent.
For the treatment of viral infection, depending on the severity of the disease, drugs are prescribed both orally and injecting administration.
Antibiotics with influenza complication
Depending on the severity and type of complications, the use of the following antibacterial groups of drugs is recommended for influenza:
Penicillins are used to treat consequences in the form of otorhinolaryngological diseases, lesions of the lower and upper respiratory tract.
Fluoroquinolones are effective when developing the symptoms of pharyngitis, sinusitis, otitis, sinusitis. Representatives of Offline, Ciprofloxacin and others.
Cephalosporins are prescribed with a protracted and acute flu course when high risks of complications.
Levomycetin facilities - have a wide range of action. This group of drugs has a strong therapeutic effect, therefore it is used strictly for its intended purpose. When self-treatment can cause negative consequences.
Macrolids are shown when attached to the infections of the upper respiratory tract infections.
Anti-tuberculosis antibiotics - the pharmacological activity of the group is aimed at combating the pathogen to tuberculosis and prevent complications.
Aminoglycosides are effective in the severe flow of influenza infection. Help prevent infection of the bloodstream, peritonitis. Related toxicity is applied strictly according to the indication.
Antifungal drugs are used in the case of attaching fungal pathology.
Actinomycetes - the main indication to the appointment is the neoplasm in the patient.
Features of the use of antibiotics for influenza
There are some features of the admission of antibacterial drugs for influenza, this is:
It is necessary to take a medicine strictly by purpose, observing the permissible dosage and the duration of the course.
It is impossible to independently stop taking the drug, in order to avoid the transition of the disease in chronic form.
The appointment of an antibiotic with influenza pathology should be fully informed by the doctor.
In parallel with antibiotic therapy, probiotics are recommended. This is necessary to maintain normal microflora.
During the treatment period, drink more liquid and there are dairy products.
The diet of the patient must be balanced. It is important to additionally take vitamin complexes and comply with prevention measures in the development of infections.
Antibiotics after influenza
Often, after the suffering disease, a person becomes needy of antibacterial agents. Their use is relevant while maintaining the following symptoms:
Any inflammatory processes.
Overflow and pain in the throat.
Redness of the eyes, tear and conjunctivitis.
Pain in chest.
Increase the size of lymph nodes.
Each person in his life came across antibiotics. Someone drank to the appointment of the attending physician, someone decided to accept them on their own. The main thing is that antibiotics are accepted for diseases. The active ingredients of antibiotics destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria and microbes in the body, speeding up the process of recovery.
When should antibiotics take?
Contrary to the common belief that antibiotics treat any diseases - they are not.
They are not advised to apply in the treatment of colds and viral diseases, because antibiotics do not have any impact on viruses. The attending physician appoints antibiotics only after identifying the real cause of the disease and its sensitivity to antibiotics. To determine the pathogen, an analysis of the material from the source of the disease is carried out. Usually this procedure takes up to 4 days. To reduce the time of illness and speed up the process of adopting antibiotics, doctors prescribe antibiotics with the assumption of a possible virus.
Why can only doctor assign antibiotics?
Antibiotics kill only bacteria and do not affect infections caused by viruses. Therefore, such diseases like influenza, a cold, sore throat or bronchitis are absolutely not amenable to treatment with antibiotics! The attending physician has due competence, which allows him to evaluate the patient and his illness and write a medicine that will help him within a limited term. Antibiotics operate in different ways. Some groups of antibiotics have an effect in the intestines, some in the bones or other organs. Therefore, it is not necessary to make the decision to independently take antibiotics.
Is it true that the reception of antibiotics without need not only does not help, but also harm to health?
Yes it's true. Antibiotics, which are taken without appointing a doctor, are able to cause allergies, cutting in the abdomen and diarrhea. In addition, the thoughtless use of antibiotics can cause an addictive body to the medicinal effect of antibiotics and in the case when they are needed - they simply will not have a proper effect.
What rules need to stick when taking antibiotics?
First, it is necessary to take antibiotics only in the dose, which prescribed a doctor and strictly in the set schedule for receiving tablets. If adverse reactions arose during the reception of antibiotics, it is necessary to immediately report this to the doctor. It is extremely not recommended to interrupt treatment or reduce the dose of antibiotics. If you finish the reception of medicines ahead of the term of the doctor installed, that is, the risk will re-cause infection, since not all pathogens were destroyed. Well, the change in the reception dose is able to provoke antibiotic-resistant, that is, the stability of the body to the actions of antibiotics.
When should you contact the doctor when the first symptoms of the disease appear?
To my health, of course, you need to treat gently and carefully. This means that the body temperature exceeds 39 degrees, rash, vomiting and other signs appeared - it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor! If the symptoms of the disease are weak and expressed in the form of sneezing, runny nose and throat pain, then this can be treated independently, taking abundant drinking and other ways to treat colds. And of course, it is not necessary to disseminately treat the health of children. We immediately consult a doctor if the child is sick up to 2 years old, as well as if the symptoms of the disease manifested themselves.
How to distinguish?
The viral disease is distinguished by an unexpected and sharp start - almost simultaneously begin with a dry cough, a large weakness in the body and muscles, a sharp headache, fever, pain and dryness in the eyeballs, high temperature.
The cold character is characteristic of a runny nose, sneezing, sore throat and head. The cold can also be with high temperatures. Therefore, an objective examination will be able to identify the true cause of the disease and appoint proper treatment.
How to be treated with viral infections?
Viral diseases are easily amenable to symptomatic treatment. Often, it is possible to do with a rich warm, vitamined drink, if necessary (at temperatures above 38 degrees Celsius), it is possible to receive antipyretic agents and, of course, the beddown. However, if the symptoms have deteriorated and added new or temperatures holds more than 3 days worth contacting the therapist.