To warm the house outside, it is inexpensive at home, you need to choose a material that will ensure good thermal insulation. Each view has its pros and cons who should take into account when making a solution so that the result of the work is as best possible.
Than you can warm the house outside cheap: materials, photos and prices
It should be immediately noted that the insulation of the facade is the process initially not the cheapest. But if you spend your own work with your own hands, you can reduce the budget twice, or even more.
How the mineral wool house insulate
This method can be used when wearing a wooden house or with a warm facade device on a brick wall. For bookmarking in the frame, plates are suitable for a density of 35 kg per cube. m and cost from 100 rubles per square meter. Sheets with a density of 130 kg will cost 900 rubles per square. Technology insulation under the trim:
- The framework of the frame, which must retreat from the wall at a distance of no less minvati thickness, most often use plates by 50 mm. The insulation is laid as close as possible so that there are no cracks.
- On top mounted the front film, protecting Minvatu from wetting and producing evaporation from it.
- The facade is trimmed with the selected material, so you can insulate the walls in the house or in the country.
If the surface is warming up under the plaster, you need to use another technology. It consists of such stages:
- The facade is prepared - cleared and leveled. Mineral wool mats are attached to it, which are best fixed with dowels for thermal insulation with a wide hat.
- The front mesh is fixed over the minvati, which must be tightened with adhesive composition. The surface is aligned so that the grids can be seen.
- After drying, a decorative coating is applied or the walls are finally aligned and painted.
This material is worth applied only when independent finishing. If you hire employees, the budget will be much more and save it is unlikely to succeed. It is important to select the optimal density, especially for the plastered facades.
What are the pluses of the foam slab insulation
This is one of the most popular solutions that is easy to use due to the low weight and stiffness of sheets. For sale foam cubic meters, the price varies from 1800 rubles per density of 10 kg / cubic meter to 3000 per density of 25-30 kg per cube. m. According to the laying technology, this type is similar to Minvata, as for its advantages, they are:
- Good thermal insulation indicators with a small weighing plates. If you choose the optimal thickness, there will always be warm in the house.
- Easy work. Due to the low weight and ease of cutting, you can warm the facade yourself, do not need helpers.
- Low price. At the ratio of value and indicators of thermal insulation of competitors, there is no foam.
- The material is not afraid of moisture drops.
By the way!
To ensure better warming all the slots between the sheets of foaming is to fill in the mounting foam.
This option serves several decades, if you close it from atmospheric influence. But the foam can damage rodents, which will reduce thermal insulation indicators with time.
How to insulate polystyrene foam
Extruded plates made of polystyrene foams are much stronger than conventional foam and superior to heat insulating characteristics. But at the same time, the cost is much higher - per cubic meter will have to pay an average of 5,000 rubles. Features of the work:
- It is best to use under the stucco, as the surface is rigid and does not bend even under load.
- Due to the grooves in the ends, the connection of the elements is much more reliable, there are no cracks on the joints.
- The easiest thing is to glue on the special composition and additionally strengthen the dowels.
Due to the high thermal insulation indicators, the thickness of the extruded polystyrene foam can be one and a half times less than that of the foam, which is important in situations when there are restrictions on space.
As used polyurethane foam
This option is different from other things that are applied to the wall using a special installation. To insulate, you need to or buy equipment, or rent. The cost-drawing services are 800-900 rubles per square meter at a layer of 5 cm. If you apply it yourself, the price will decrease approximately twice. Process features:
- The base does not need to be prepared, the main thing is to clean it from dirt and dust. If the facade is wet, it must completely dry.
- The method is suitable when the surface is trimmed by any finishing material. Previously need to build a frame, as then it is impossible to do it.
- The composition is splashing so as to close the entire surface with a uniform layer, which should not interfere with the installation of the finish subsequently. But if individual sites will be written, it is easy to cut.
Polyurethan is good because it creates a solid thermal insulation layer without the bridges of the cold and cracks. It is environmentally friendly, no moisture is afraid, not damaged by rodents and does not support combustion. But if you have to rent a rent, then the cost will be high.
Basalt Wat: Is it worth using it
Those who do not know than to separate the walls inexpensively and efficiently can use basalt cotton wool. These plates are made by melting basalts. They do not contain harmful substances and serve to a hundred years. And the price is much lower than most of the analogs and starts from 100 rubles per square meter of insulation with a thickness of 5 cm. To determine whether it is worth using it, it is necessary to take into account the following:
- The material does not burn and begins to melt only at temperatures above 1000 degrees. The sheets are quite rigid, so after insulation, the facade can be placed, pre-amplified by the facade mesh.
- Plates have high resistance to temperature drops, do not sit down over time and have good sound insulation indicators.
- Basalt racks to chemical and biological impacts, it does not have rodents and insects.
- Work with plates just. But at the same time they cannot be exhausted, as they break and lose the form.
- Also, the insulation is afraid of moisture, more precisely, it penetrates through it, so the surface must be able to hydroize.
Basalt plates are well suited for the insulation of the facade, if the surface is closed with a film or finished with a plaster layer.
Is it worth insulating sawdust
Some still use this method as the cheapest, as it is possible to buy sawdust in a symbolic price of 10-12 rubles per kilogram. But to use this option, despite its environmental friendliness, it is not necessary for a variety of reasons:
- Sawdles are well lit and with a fire such a heater will create a lot of problems. The use of a mixture with clay and firebioplasts partially solve this problem, but it complicates work and increases costs.
- To achieve an effect comparable to a sheet of foam of a thickness of 5 cm, you need to make a layer from sawdust 20 cm or even more. You have to build massive frames and lose a lot of space.
- In such a heater, rodents and insects are breeding. And if water falls into it, the thermal insulation indicators will decrease, and the risk of fungus will appear.
Over time, the layer of sawdust is inevitably settled and voids are inevitably formed, so you have to shove them at least once a year for several years.
Nowadays, there are many more efficient and safe insulation, so the sawdust is better not to use. And if there is no other output, you need to dry the chips well before use and interfere with it with lime to protect from pests and mold.
Oleg, 45 years old, Vladimir
Lead the brigade for about 20 years, during this time what insulation only did not use. Most often, people choose a foam, since it costs a little and well insulates the surface. If you take a high-quality density of 25 kg, then serve it will be a couple of dozen years at least, and cracks will not appear on the surface, provided that normal plastering and using the glass wall. He was insulated by the house with extruded plates, because I consider them the best solution for today because of the strength and durability.
Andrei, 29 years old, Leningrad region.
I am engaged in the lining of houses by siding, block house and other materials. Under the frame I usually lay mineral wool with a density of about 30 kg and a thickness of 5 cm (I advise people to put 10 cm to really warm well). If you put cotton wool tightly, I do not miss a single site and look good to the surface of the membrane, then Minvat will last long and will not lose its properties.
Igor, 33 years old, Tambov
I am engaged in insulating the designs of polyurethane foam, I have been providing services for about 10 years, for all the time there was not a single complaint on the quality of thermal insulation. Due to the solid layer, cold simply nowhere to penetrate, the material is durable and serves a long time, but it is necessary to close it from the atmosphere, since the ultraviolet destroys it with time. And you do not need to cook anything - after assembling the frame under the trim, I come and process a house for several hours, it saves a lot of time.
Alexander, 39 years old, Tver
I am engaged in plaster facades, I try to use only extruded polystyrene foam, as you used to work with it and confident as a material. I stick not only the base, but I nano a little composition on the ends so that the jokes were hermetic. If the surface is smooth, then plastering it after insulation is one pleasure. Suitable for any buildings - from a bar, brick, concrete, and so on.
Warm house from the outside can be in different ways, it all depends on the skills and budget. If you wish, you can warmly heat the walls even for a little money, but you have to spend all the work with your own hands.
The insulation of houses is becoming more urgent with increasing prices for utilities. You can save well by making everything yourself and after studying how the private houses are insulated with their own hands. Considering that, for example, Moscow is quite cold and long in winter, a decrease in heating costs can significantly affect the family budget.
What to warm first?
Very good, problems in insulation see the inhabitants of high-altitude houses located next to the private sector. So, at the beginning of winter, the roof, where the snow quickly melts, clearly indicate the high heat loss in the attic. This can be revealed and with the help of thermal imager.
Considering that warm air rises upwards, and the cold - bottom, special attention should be paid to the ceiling and floor. Especially if the house without basement and stands on Earth. With outdoor warming at home, in no case cannot be forgotten about the base so as not to create cold bridges between warm and cold surfaces.
Also, a lot of heat leaves through the windows. And if all the slots around the openings are securely moistened, you should carefully look at the batteries. Their length should be equal to the width of the window, and the windowsill cannot overlap the radiator. After all, it is at the expense of convection that a heat curtain is created, which does not pass the cold from the street.
Calculation of the thickness of the insulation
Select the thickness of the insulation follows from the material of the walls, the thickness of these walls and the minimum temperature during the coldest period. According to SNiP, just 5 cm of foam or 13 cm vermiculite for insulation at home.
But this is an additional warming of window openings and reducing the walls of the walls.
If you need to provide minimal heat loss, it is better to use the calculator and calculate the individual thickness of the insulation. For example, for a wall folded in one brick, 10 cm minvata will be required.
This will allow only 37.20 kW peploter for the heating season, instead of 166 kW without insulation.
The same 10 cm Minvata will be enough to insulate the house from a bar with a thickness of the walls of 150 mm, heat loss will be even lower - only 34 kW. But the 35-centimeter walls from the gasoblock can be insulated with only 5 cm Minvata to provide 44 kW peploter.
Details about how to insulate private houses with their own hands
It is necessary to warm the private house with the mind, because to redo it is more expensive. You need to remember the basic rule - only external walls are insulated. The insulation laid from the inside will not only reduce the area of the room, but also will shift the dew point in the house.
Condensed moisture, which there is no place to evaporate, will cause mold formation, harmlessly by the building, but also the health in it.
The second rule of the construction of the cake of the walls is an increase in the vapor permeability of materials from the inner side to the outer. In other words, the frame must be maximally protected from moisture from the inside, and the steam falling into the material of the walls and the ceiling should evaporate freely.
If the vapor permeability is broken and water microparticles are delayed at some of the stages, it again leads to the development of fungi. Particular attention should be paid to the ceiling vaporizolation - warm and wet air rises up and, falling on a more hygroscopic inner layer of the insulation, can no longer evaporate through overlaps.
Materials best suitable for insulation
Of course, for independent insulation of the house, materials that do not require additional equipment are most suitable. Therefore, polyurethane foam and emotion applied by sputtering can not even consider - the cost of the equipment will not pay off when used for one house.
So, the simplest used:
- Plates and rolls from mineral wool - the horizontal surface is simply fitted, to vertical they need to be tightly pressing, for example, self-draws with "umbrellas";
- Polyfoam - glued to smooth surfaces with the help of a special composition and is additionally fixed by "umbrellas".
- Vermiculitis, clamzite, sawdust - simply embank them with the desired layer in the pre-made formwork.
But for working with these materials, you will need a drill or a perforator to do the holes in the walls, the screwdriver for screwing the frame, saw or the bruk for cutting the bars. So do not think that warming on our own - the case is very simple, even if the hand is a bit naked on the home building.
Advantages, Disadvantages and Technology Installation of Mineral Insulation
Minvata is universal - it can be used for insulation of both wooden and brick buildings. Due to high vapor permeability, it will provide an optimal microclimate in the house without creating a greenhouse effect. But it is for the possibility of "breathing" this is so appreciated by houses from the bar.
For the insulation of the lower floors, it is better not to use glasswater - it loves to shave the mice.
Basalt plates in this regard are preferable. Warming technology is extremely simple:
- A frame of 5x5 cm fraction is stuffed. It is attached to the wooden walls, it is attached by self-drawing, on concrete and bricks - dowels. Bruks are set by level and aligned with wooden linings.
- The pitch of bars in the frame - 1 cm less than the width of the Mata of the insulation (so that he lay tightly, but did not fade). If warming is required by a large layer, the transverse bars are stacked on top of the first layer and stacked the second layer. The roof is also insulating the roof.
- Brick houses can be insulated without the construction of the frame. Basalt plates are attached with special glue and fixed by "umbrellas".
- For wooden houses, a ventilated facade is used with a mandatory gap between insulation and siding. In this case, the Ministry of Service closes the windproof membrane, and the locations of the punctures and all joints are sampled with butyl rubber scotch. On top of the windproofs, guides for siding are hampering, they will also provide the desired ventilation.
- In the wet facade, the basalt wool is enhanced by the reinforcing grid and is placed. It is worth remembering that Minvata is a flexible material, so even a light kick around the facade can spoil the finish.
The disadvantages of mineral insulation are also there. In addition to the mentioned love of mice, it is hygroscopic, so requires good waterproofing. With incorrect ventilation, the mineral wool begins to mold, and over time it is weathered and placed.
It is necessary to remember the safety technique when working with a glasswater - fibers that hit the skin, cause severe itch. Basalt wool crumble greatly. If you get into the light dust is not displayed, so the person needs to be protected by a respirator and glasses.
Pros, cons and technique of insulation of foam
The main minus foam is its low vapor permeability, so that it does not suit the insulation of wooden buildings. In order not to create the effect of a plastic bottle when there is always increased humidity in the house, it is desirable to pay special attention to ventilation.
The advantages of polystyreneol is obvious:
- Just mount - it is light, does not require a framework of a frame or formwork;
- Easy to cut - does not forms dust and is completely safe;
- does not rot and does not fit;
- inexpensive and durable.
PPP plates on a flat prepared surface. You do not need to do the screed, but remove all the protruding elements will have. The foam is attached to special glue, and to improve adhesion the walls are pre-processed by primer.
Fixed expanded polystyrene with "umbrellas" with a slight indentation, and the caps are maintained by cement mortar to ensure tightness. The seams are closed with mounting foam, surplus are cut and also close.
The video contains all the insulation of foam insulation:
Bulk insulation and their features
Natural bulk materials are characterized by environmental friendliness and, in some cases, low price. So, inhabited in the forest edge, there will be no problems with sawdust, but the delivery of the ceramzit can do without it. Vermikulitis is much better than clay in terms of its qualities, since the only insulation is able to absorb heat. So it is best to apply as insulation insulated inside a wall frame.
For industrial scales, this is unprofitable, but private construction allows you to use bulk insulation even so.
If it is necessary to insulate the attic overlap, the easiest way is to pour 15 cm sawdust. They do not even need to close with waterproofing films.
Thanks to its properties, absorb and evaporate moisture, the material itself perfectly copes with the removal of excess steam, lowering the humidity in the house. In addition, all bulk insulation are not suitable for mouse nests, which also speaks of their favor.
The flaws also have:
- Thanks to its properties, absorb and evaporate moisture, the material itself perfectly copes with the removal of excess steam, lowering the humidity in the house. In addition, all bulk insulation are not suitable for mouse nests, which also speaks in their favor. They also have themselves:
- Ceramzite is hygroscopic and heavy, so it is not suitable for large-scale warming of buildings on light foundations;
- Vermiculitis is also quite heavy, but does not absorb moisture.
Any bulk insulation is best shown themselves on horizontal surfaces, and they are categorically not suitable for pitf roofs.
To build your warm house, it is enough to have the minimally necessary construction skills. And I will definitely work out!
How to insulate a private house with your own hands: roof, walls and foundation, descriptions offered in the heat-insulating material (photos & video) + reviews
See also: Brick brand with her own hands | Step-by-step instructions, simple drawing (25+ photos & video) + reviews
Thermal insulation materials for residential buildings are selected depending on the type of construction and the type of future cladding. Tell in detail how to insulate a private house with your own hands in each case.
Is it possible to insulate the house from the inside?
If you do not want to live in a room where the humidity exceeds all the permissible limits, and the corners covers the layers of the inlet and black fungus, never insulate the building from the inside. Wall freezing in this case will occur due to the border offset of the dew point - a plot of a certain temperature on which the steam, hiding in the air, begins to condense and turn into water.
Moisture loss always occurs on the border between the cold and warm air. Proper thermal insulation involves the mandatory displacement of this area beyond the building. When building a building outside, a sharp temperature difference will be observed somewhere on the border of the insulation, that is, outdoors.
When laying the heat insulator inside the house, the dew point will be located between the cold wall and warm trim, that is, in the building itself, which is unacceptable.
Dew dawn in the wall of the building
The option is not very successful, in which the thin layer of the insulation is selected with a small wall thickness of the walls. The dew point in this case will be closer to the center of the wall, which can also lead to the freezing of the corners and the loss of condensate in the house.See also: Bath furnaces with water tank (120+ photos): device and principles of work, types, choice of model, independent manufacture (video) + reviews
How to choose the thickness of the insulation?
To reduce heat loss and providing an acceptable temperature in rooms, the thickness of the walls, their thermal insulation properties, the formation of the foundation, climate of the terrain and the prevailing wind loads are taken into account. With a sufficient thickness of the walls made of materials with high heat insulating properties (for example, composed of bricks or logs), the insulation of the facade is not a necessity.
The thermal insulation of the house collected from slag blocks must be maximum - this material is not capable of keeping the heat for a long time. When calculating the thickness of the walls, the thermal conductivity coefficient of the insulation itself is taken into account. Best characteristics have materials such as Polynescenttan, Polystyrene, Minvat.
For example, a 50mm layer of polyurethane is able to maintain heat just as 1720 mm bricks.
Thermal conductivity of materials
Professional builders are used to calculate the thickness of the insulation quite complex formulas. When choosing a heat insulator for a private house, it is convenient to use online calculators. You will only need to specify the region of living, the size of the building, the types of basement and attic overlap, the thickness and material of the walls, the type of roof.
Even with a significant thickness of the walls, a small layer of insulation in the facade still should be paved. After all, when contacting cold air and temperature drops on their surfaces, cracks are formed, leading to premature destruction.See also: How to drill a well into the water with your own hands? Description, Arrangement (Photo & Video)
When can I get to the insulation of the building?
In construction there is a basic rule - to start work on the decoration of buildings, it is necessary after a complete shrinkage of the house. It can take about a year. Moreover, the shrinkage is given not only wooden houses, but also buildings from bricks, monolithic frameworks, etc.
Installation of thermal insulation is preferably performed in dry weather - the house is pre-dry well. The house should already have a roof, exterior waterproofing of the foundation, ventilation, windows, doors.
All work on the decoration of the log house starts only after his shrinkage
It should not be started in the frost, nor in the heat - it is necessary to wait for the positive temperature of 5-25 ° C. The optimal time began finishing the facade - late spring or the beginning of autumn.See also: Dual house projects for 6-10 acres: 120 photos, description and requirements | The most interesting ideas
Warming facade. Main ways
Ventilated hinged facade with siding decoration
There are several ways to finish the walls:
- By creating ventilated hinged facades: fastening facing materials on the frame; Between the insulation and the wall, the ventilation gap is formed, protecting them from condensate and moisture accumulation
- Watching method: The system consists of 3 layers, heat-insulating (most often used inexpensive foam, which is attached to a special glue composition), reinforcing mesh and decorative layer (plaster)
- Through ready-made plaster systems (thermopanels) , heat insulating materials with an already applied decorative layer
- With the help of siding (high-strength dialing panels): In fact, the method is a kind of ventilated facades.
What materials can be used to insulate the facade?
Materials used for thermal insulation of walls must have a number of specifications:
- A fairly low thermal conductivity coefficient: reliably store and not lose heat
- low degree of water absorption - because when absorbing moisture, they almost completely lose their heat-insulating properties
- Resistance to rotting
- sufficient vapor permeability: Walls of the house must "breathe", that is, pass the air and give moisture; When closing the walls, the insulation with low vapor permeability, the humidity in the house will always be increased
- Strength and stability To wind loads, other physical influences
- Fire resurability: they should not have increased flammability
- Long service
Types of insulation
Universal insulation that fully meet these requirements is unfortunately not.
Each of them has both indisputable pros and cons:
- Styrofoam: It is able to store heat for a long time, but very vulnerable to the action of ultraviolet, plus has low strength and fire resistance, therefore requires additional finishes; moisture absorption average
- Penoplex: has a low thermal conductivity coefficient, moisture consistency, resistant to burning; disadvantages two - bad vapor permeability and sufficiently weighty compared to foam price
- Minvata: Undoubted advantages include low thermal conductivity, high fire resistance; But since this material quickly absorbs moisture, requires mandatory waterproofing
- Warm plaster: The mixture based on cement, the sand in which is replaced by heat insulating components - sawdust, vermiculite, perlite, pepheme or foam granules; Later is covered with a layer of decorative plaster
- Penosole: In fact, it is a liquid foam - light insulation, perfectly stored heat, applied by spraying; Its main minuses is a weak resistance to aggressive chemical environments and fire
- Liquid polyurethane foam: Also applied by spraying using special devices, filling each slit; It is very convenient to operate on inclined planes in thermal insulation of the roof; But the cost of it is quite high
Foam decoration with subsequent plastering
With the insulation of the facade of the foam to increase the fire safety of the structure, the so-called slab dissection method is used using fire-resistant mineral wool.See also: Plastic windows in a wooden house: a description of the main characteristics, how to install your own hands, photo and video instructions
Foundation insulation materials
The foundation, distinctive soil and structure, is considered one of the main source of heat loss. However, not all kinds of materials can be used for its insulation. Minvata or basalt plates are not suitable for these purposes - they absorb moisture from the soil and quickly come into disrepair.
Heater Foundation Ceramzit
The most common insulation for foundation are:
- Polystyrene foam: Perhaps the ideal option in the ratio of price-quality; If it is inappropriate for finishing walls due to low vapor permeability, then for the insulation of the base, the material that is not afraid of rotting is suitable ideal; Plus has a small weight, as well as easy to install; High combustibility in this case has no significant value - because it is placed under the ground;
- Ceramzit: Excellent environmentally friendly heat insulator; Due to high porosity, it forms an airbag that reliably protects the base of the building; requires additional waterproofing with coating or rolled materials; But the high cost does not allow you to widely use it as a heater for the foundation;
- Liquid polyurethane foam: It is similar to properties with polystyrene foam, but without special equipment, its use is impossible.
Heat insulating materials for roofing
As you know, warm air tends only upwards. If the overlap of the roof is not insufficient, it will go freely, and the house quickly fastens. If up to 15-20% of heat disappears through the walls, then it takes about 10-20% through the roof. Negregate this fact is not worth it.
Heat insulation roof polyurethane foam
For the heat insulation of the roofs, any kinds of materials, from minvati to slag or sawdust can be used. When using claying it, it is most often mixed with foam granules - it helps to reduce the weight of the insulation and strengthen its effect.
Rolled eco-glass, mining, and liquid polyurethane foam are used mainly for inclined surfaces. Tight plates and bulk insulation are used to lay onto the slab overlap.
The heat insulation of the roof must be thought out before laying the structure - after all, when using severe flowing materials, the load on the foundation will increase significantly.See also: Production of greenhouses with their own hands from the profile pipe and polycarbonate: a complete description of the process, drawings with dimensions, watering and heating (photos & video)
Assortment of thermal insulators
The range of heat-insulating materials implemented today in the market is quite wide
Consider only the main of them:
Polyfoam (cellular plastic)
Inexpensive material made on the basis of foamed plastic (mainly polystyrene). Excellent thermal insulation properties of foaming are explained by the presence of multiple separately taken pellets separated by partitions and gas filled with gas. Plate 8 cm thick is equivalent to heat printing 25 cm of tree or 1.5 m wall of brick.
Polyfoam has a small weight, easily cuts, easy to install. Plates from it are enough elastic and unlike rolled materials do not sane over time.
Outdoor insulation of foam
The density, the strength of the foam depends on the technology of its processing and type of raw materials. To cover the facades, it is better to use an increased density material - it crumble less when cutting and has a longer service life.
Despite the fact that the foam itself does not rot, the colonies of microorganisms can easily be fixed on its rough surface, capable of switching to other elements of the structure.
Due to the tendency to ignition, as well as the ability to destruction under the influence of sunlight, this insulation must necessarily close the layer of plaster or use it in ventilated facades.
Extrusion polystyrene foam
Despite the fact that polystyrene foam, as well as the foam, is made on the basis of polystyrene, its technical characteristics differ significantly. If foaming of foaming occurs under the influence of steam, then in polystyrene, the volume granules are obtained by introducing a foaming reagent with subsequent melting through the extruder. As a result, the material acquires a more uniform structure and strength.
All its air granules are closed, have the same size, because the polystyrene was less fragile than foam.
The insulation of the foundation of polystyolistic
The service life of this material is up to 40 years. It has minimal water absorption (up to 0.4%) and less thermal conductivity - on average it is equal to 0.029-0.034 W / (M · K). Indicators of thermal insulation of polystyrene foams are very high - even a thin sheet is enough to create a reliable hurder barrier.
But still, so the polystyrene is not able to "breathe", it is better not to use it for finishing the walls, otherwise they will mock. The main purpose of polystyrene foam is the thermal insulation of the bases and the basement of the foundations. Special high-strength high density material is used in construction as auxiliary or even carrier structures.See also: How to make a patio in the country with your own hands: A variety of options for design, decoration and arrangement (85+ photos of ideas & video)
Types of Minvati
Mineral wool call a group of materials of a fibrous structure, which includes:
- Stone wool: obtained from melt minerals of rocks; It is more often called Minvata; One of its varieties includes more moisture-resistant basalt cotton wool
- Glasswater: Thin fibers derived from molten glass or sand in the heating process under the influence of ultra-high temperatures
- slag: The cheapest material based on a domain slag; Due to increased hygroscopicity for the insulation of buildings is not used
The benefits of minvati can be attributed:
- High thermal insulation properties
- Low ignorance
- Resistance to rotting
- acceptable value
Types of mineral wool
Most of the types of mineral wool absorb moisture and have low mechanical strength, therefore it is necessarily closed by a layer of vapor barrier, and then sheathered with hermetic trim.
Rolled minvatu for finishing the facades is undesirable - it has a smaller thermal protection plus gives shrinkage, over time, forming "cold bridges". To finish the building it is better to use the material in the form of dense stoves.
Excellent technical characteristics plus an acceptable price provided to this material sufficient demand. This type of minvati has a low thermal conductivity, almost does not absorb moisture, while thanks to the cellular structure is able to "breathe", that is, to pass the air and remove the condensate.
Depending on the type of raw materials and the method of production can have a different degree of rigidity. A stone wool is produced in the form of powders, semi-rigid mats or plates of increased strength. Due to the high fire supply and high degree of thermal insulation, it is widely used in construction - it is used as insulation and soundproofing facades, roofing buildings having an increased risk of fire.
It is allowed to use stone wool to isolate underground communications, chimneys, premises of rooms with installed furnaces or boilers.
In order to avoid the appearance of the "cold bridges" when using any kinds of slab insulation, all seams must be additionally squeezed.
Due to the low density and increased hygroscopicity for finishing the facades, it is not recommended. Plus, glass gamble under the influence of elevated temperatures is able to melt, completely losing thermal insulation properties.
This inexpensive rolled material is most often used in thermal insulation of pipelines and technical premises.
When working with it, special caution is required - thin fibers, rushing, fall on the skin, causing irritation. When inhalation into light small particles, glass gambles are able to provoke inflammation.
It is worth this material more expensive than the usual stone wool, but it is more durable and volumetric. Another of his plus is less degree of moisture absorption and shrinkage. Formaldehyde, which is part of basalt canvas, is able to scare rodents, which are often settled in the insulation.
They easily carry significant temperature differences without loss of quality, do not rot, do not ignite. High and their heat insulating properties.
It has a basalt wool a significant disadvantage - high brittleness. Therefore, it is necessary to work with it carefully, be sure to work in protective clothing, glasses and respirator. Dust formed during its sawing causes skin irritation. It is able to settle in the lungs.
Just as in cases with stone cotton, it is better to use non-rolled facades to cover the facades, but a more durable slab material. Apply basalt cotton wool and spraying using special equipment - in this case, a special type of material is used in the form of granules.See also: What to do if plastic windows sweat in a house or apartment? Causes of condensate. Ways to solve this problem (photo & video) + reviews
Facade thermopanels are already ready-made systems consisting of two layers: thermal protective and facing. No additional finishes or painting they require. The insulation is often used polyurethane foam or polystyrene foam.
The decorative layer is usually performed from clinker tiles "under the brick" or colored marble crumb. Recently produced products with finishing with porcelain stoneware. Thermopanels are allowed to assemble on any species of walls from concrete, bricks to timber or slag blocks.
Their technical characteristics and service life depend on the manufacturing material. Installation of such structures is easy - they are simply attached to profiles.
Facade thermopanels do not require additional finishes
Improved options for thermopadals have a side attachment of the type of spike-groove, eliminating the appearance of cold bridges. Such panels do not require additional processing of seams and filling them with a solution.
Through poorly insulated windows, the doors from the house may valeuate up to 20-30% of heated air, so do not forget about careful finishing and shocking the slopes. It is also necessary to think about the ventilation system - with its incorrect installation, up to 30-35% of heat can go.
Heat insulating plaster
This type of thermal insulator is another novelty of the construction market. The main binding in it is lime or portland cement. Also add different stabilizers and plasticizers. But the main component (up to 40-75%) in the thermal insulation plaster is porous insulation in the form of foam perlite, vermiculite or foam balls.
The layer of such a mixture is only 50 mm in its heat insulating properties is equal to masonry in 2 bricks. Plus it is possible, as well as the usual, level the walls, use as a decorative finish. And it weighs it 3-4 times less than ordinary plaster. It is possible to use warm plaster for ceiling floors, walls, window and door slopes, pipelines, as well as internal finishing works.
Layer of thermal insulation plaster
The technology of applying heat-insulating plaster is almost identical to the usual technique - the mixture is distributed using a conventional spatula or mechanical sprayers. It hits well with the surface, so a small layer is allowed to be applied even without reinforcing grid.
This material is able to "breathe", passing steam, has sufficient water repellent properties. Due to the lack of seams, warm plaster does not forms cold bridges. In addition, she is not a fuel and is able to protect buildings from accidental fire.
Liquid carbomide foam (foaming) is convenient because it can be poured directly at the construction site. It will excellently fill out all the irregularities and emptiness without expanding in volume. However, it is possible to obtain high-quality coating without cracks at temperatures up to + 5 ° C.
Works in the cold with him are strictly prohibited.
A carbomid foam is also available in the form of plates or crumbs, called a thermal, refreamed of hollow frames. The absence of seams is the most important advantage of the material. Use it for the insulation of walls, attics, underground space or as a layer in brick walls.
Heat insulation by foamizol
In terms of service, it exceeds the usual foam or extruded polystyrene foam - operation time can be up to 80 years. Builders often complain about its low strength, however, this is due to the use of insufficient density foamizol. Improved material for strength is not inferior to flexible and dense expanded polystyrene.
The porous structure of the carbomid foam allows you to get a good pair. However, due to the ability to absorb liquid, it requires moisture protection. As a waterproofing, not only the film, followed by solid panels, but also cement-sand plaster.
Liquid polyurethane foam
Applying liquid polyurethane foam
This material is obtained using two components: polyol and polyisocyndage. Selection in the process of their interaction of carbon dioxide allows you to obtain the surface of the foam structure.
Polyurethane foam is produced in two modifications:
- With closed voids: It has the best strength and heat-insulating characteristics, but worse worst moisture from the walls; It, like slab polyurethane, is better to use for insulation of foundations
- With open voids: Widely used for decoration of walls, roofing, indoors, especially inclined designs
Liquid polyurethane foam is more expensive than foamosole, but it has better technical characteristics. It is more durable and elastic, absorbs moisture less. According to manufacturers, this thermal insulator, subject to application and proper operation, is capable of listening to 50 years.
The disadvantages of liquid polyurethane foam include poor resistance to ultraviolet - the surfaces of the surface cannot be left for a long time open. He sticks badly to the cold walls, so it is necessary to work with it only at the plus temperatures. Just like sheet polyurethane foam, material fuel, therefore requires additional protection.
Granulated heat insulators
To this group of thermal insulators include clamzite, perlite and vermiculite, having a view of the granules filled with air. In the first case, the cellular structure is obtained by swelling the slightly saline clay. Perlitis granules are obtained by heat treatment of rocks of volcanic origin.
Vermiculitis - thermal insulating bulk material with a cellular structure, in the production of mica (volcanic glass). The advantages of granular materials include high sound-, thermal insulation properties, environmental safety, frost resistance. Such bulk materials are used mainly for insulation of floors and overlaps.
When using clay, it is recommended to use fractions of three species - granules with a size of 0.5 (the smallest), 0.2 and 0.4 cm. In this case, the granules will not form air cold sucks.
Warming roofing ceramzit
Vermiculite is more expensive than clay, but is distinguished higher compared to other materials heat-insulating properties . And even when absorbing moisture, they almost do not change. After drying, he completely restores its properties.
Vermikulite has a smaller than that of the ceramzite, the weight, which is important when the roofing overlaps . Since its granules are very small, to create a reliable layer of thermal protection, a much smaller layer of frustration is required.
The main disadvantage of all granulated heat insulators is the need to use reliable waterproofing, because they have a high degree of water absorption. Since such materials are prone to dust formation, they use them only in the screeds.
For example, perlite, as well as vermiculitis, after absorbing water does not lose its properties. However, since it is able to draw up to 300% of the fluid (in this, the perlite is seriously losing clay and permiculite), its weight increases many times.
Comparison of Perlit and Vermiculitis
According to the author of this video, not all the designs of the house need insulation. In his roller, he gives a detailed description of the methods of heat transfer, talks about the main errors that occur when mounting insulation.
Warming at home
8.6. Total Score.
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9.5.Buyer assessments: Be the first!
The country house should be warm and cozy so that the owner can comfortably live in it all year round. To a greater extent, it depends on the temperature in the premises. The installed heating system will solve only part of the question. Building designs must have the ability to save heat inside it. .
The need to insulate the house occurs when designing a new building or an additional insulation of the existing construction building has been owned for a long time or recently acquired. When insulates the house there are two questions: inspire inside or outside and the better to do it?
Therefore, we will deal with the article, the better to warm the house outside and why it is more profitable, and we will get acquainted with the technical characteristics of insulating materials.
Why need outdoor insulation, not internally
The walls are the main source of heat leakage, through them takes up to 30%. Depending on its thickness, material and quantity of cracks in the house, the house is capable of maintaining heat or not. However, inside or outside it is better to place the insulation for the walls?
Outdoor insulation gives certain advantages compared to internal:
- The useful inner area of space reserved under housing is preserved;
- Walls and foundations are not loaded with additional weight;
- The insulation performs not only its own direct function, but also is a decorative trim of the facade of the house;
- The outer insulation does not allow the walls to drain or be soaked with water moisture, protects against temperature differences, which occurs when internal. Due to this building will last longer in working condition;
- The thermal insulation serves simultaneously with sound insulation.
More clearly understand the advantages, if you insulate the house outside with your own hands, will help The concept of "dew point" is a temperature that allows you to fall out condensate.
This point is located inside the wall or outside, and the particular place depends on the characteristics of the wall, the thickness of the layers of wall structures, temperature inside and outside and the level of humidity. However, the nuance is that even not a warmed wall will give a more optimal position of this point than insulated from the inside and only. The correctly selected insulation for a particular wall material with a certain thickness will allow to give the right place to this point - outside.
But the main reason why the insulation of the walls is carried out outside, and not from the inside, these are construction standards of the SP 23-101-2004. In accordance with them, internal insulation is allowed in exceptional cases:
- Features of the facade make outdoor work impossible from a technical point of view;
- The building belongs to architectural monuments .
In this case, an internal insulation is allowed, but subject to the creation of a steamproof layer.
Popular thermal insulation materials
The main indicator of the insulation for walls of the house outside is its coefficient of thermal conductivity . What he is less, the way in the house is warmer.
When choosing a material for insulation at home, it is better to choose such that meets the following requirements:
- resistant to shrinkage, to mechanical damage, to ultraviolet rays;
- Easy mothing . It is important that the insulation is quickly fixed, a lot of instruments were required for installation, and the number of additional work should be minimal;
- non-influential insects and microorganisms;
- resistant to ignition;
- capable of adjusting the microclimate indoor .
As for the technical characteristics, three of them are the most important:
- thermal conductivity . Shows the ability of the insulation to carry out or holding the air. The lower the indicator, the higher the thermal insulation properties of the insulation above and the thinner the sufficient layer is sufficient for the result. In living conditions, thermal conductivity is much higher than in laboratory dry;
- Parp permeability and hygroscopicity . Shows how many evaporation passes through a layer of insulation;
- Density of material . It affects the thermal conductivity and strength of the material, from this value you can understand how much the insulation is driving a house.
All materials for insulation that are used in the private construction of houses are divided into four main groups:
- Flame ( Nowadays, for insulation are used very rarely. );
The most common types of insulating materials are as follows:
- polystyrene foam (he is a foam);
- polyurethane foam;
- basalt materials;
- extruded expanded polystyrenex (PESEROPLEX);
- mineral wool;
- Liquid heat insulation.
How to insulate the house outside? Well copes with this task polymer insulation. The polymers have the following advantages for building insulation:
- low cost;
- low weight;
- low level of moisture absorption;
At the same time, they do not withstand high temperatures, instantly destroyed from gasoline, acetone, solvent. Are an attractive place to housing mice.
One of the types of thermal insulation material is polystyrene foam, or foam. It is used in civil and industrial construction. It is made for this role in plates and granulated, like bulk thermal insulation. The properties of thermal insulation in it provides a porous structure: cells are filled with air, it ensures the preservation of heat. This is one of the cheap and durable insulation for outdoor walls. . Durable, resistant to temperature differences, with excellent sound insulation, which does not require an additional layer.
Eco-friendly material. It has gained great popularity due to the ease of installation, low weight, strength and low water absorption. Low mechanical strength. Calculates from the effects of nitrocale. This is a weak-threshable material, but its disadvantage is that poisonous gases distinguishes during combustion. For this reason, it is used exclusively for insulation outside. In addition, it has low vapor permeability, it means to use it for the insulation of walls from the "breathable" materials is impossible.
Extruded expanded polystyrene foam
This insulation for the outer walls of the house is also manufactured from polystyrene granules, but on another technology than foam. It is the latest generation material. It is performed using graphite, which increases its strength and energy-saving properties. For some quality, it is better than polystyrene foam, for example, below vapor permeability, higher strength. This makes it more profitable when insulating basement and basement.
Among the advantages of resistance to mechanical exposure, more than 30 years are used, environmentally friendly. It is simply mounted, does not lose its qualities during wetting.
Disadvantages similar to polystyrene foam, but the price is higher.
Polyurethane foam is one of the types of plastic, has a cellular foam structure, due to which its thermal conductivity coefficient is one of the lowest. It has a high level of adhesiveness, therefore it is used for any surfaces, creating a hermetic coating.
A high level of moisture resistance, resistant to temperatures, can be used for a long time. Not deformed, does not contribute to the formation of fungus. Creates an additional sound insulation layer.
It is applied thanks to the compressor and the hose, so indispensable for complex structures and frame houses, being a stuffing material. The disadvantage is its high price and the fact that special equipment is required for applying.
Stone wool (basalt)
What else to insulate the walls of the house outside? For this, the stone, or basalt wool suitable. As a raw material for this subspecies of mineral wool use rock rocks. Usually it is basalt, from where and the name of the material. Fibrous structure and small density give low thermal conductivity, which is one and a half times lower than that of the foam. But, in contrast, the material does not burn and refers to the "breathable" insulation.
For wool as a porous fibrous material, the following qualities are characterized:
- does not burn: Basalt wool leads in heat resistance;
- successfully combined with any walls due to its vapor permeability , used in frame houses;
- can be used as noise insulation;
- cotton plates are not gnawing rodents .
At the same time there are disadvantages. For example, the pores must be protected from moisture, otherwise thermal insulation properties will be lost. Wat has a low level of strength, melted when burning, collapsed over the years. It needs to be fixed, otherwise, over time slides down.
Thermal insulation materials - new products on the market
For insulation of outer walls, not only traditional insulation, but also innovative materials are used. They are more effective than those tested and familiar views, but also more expensive . New insulation includes the following:
- foamed polyurethane;
Let us dwell in more detail on each of them and we will deal with what they are Hoshi for the insulation of a country house.
It is used in several types: as mounting foam, stove, sprayed isolation. It can easily be off, so they are not used in the "wet" facade. But it is very common in the manufacture of sandwich panels. The heat insulation panel is used for finishing the facade.
The material from cellulosic fiber is applied to the walls. Used in two formats:
- Fills the space between the wall and facing;
- spans on the wall with the crate, subsequently the facade panels are put on it .
This wool is safer than glass gamble, use and installation.
The better to insulate the house outside - the regulations by the number of layers
In accordance with the regulatory documents, the insulation of the wall of the house outside is carried out in two versions:
External cladding is not considered insulation, but its thermal insulation properties are taken into account. In three-layer structures, the third layer is the material of the structure itself.
Also, insulation is carried out with a ventilated layer or without it. That is, there are four technical solutions for the insulation of the outer walls of the building.
Depending on the material of the wall, the method of its heat shields is chosen:
- Brick, reinforced concrete, ceramzite concrete : All four solutions are suitable;
- tree : two- and three-layer walls, ventilated layer;
- Frame buildings (thin sheet lifting): a wall of three layer, the air layer ventilated and not ventilated;
- Wall from block cellular concrete : two-layer design, brick finish, layer of both types.
The best thermal insulation material for houses with a small number of floors - minvat or polystyrene foam, as recommended by the standard.
The better to insulate the house outside depending on the material of the walls
Solving, the better to warm the house, you should first pay attention to the material from which he was erected. These Construction materials themselves have already possess certain indicators: for example, moisture resistance, thermal conductivity, heat resistance. It is necessary to take into account their properties in combination with the parameters of the insulation.
As for the insulation itself, his necessary Choose taking into account such factors:
- When insulating a wooden house, you must install the crate which will provide ventilation. And the lamp in turn is required to finish with siding or other types of attachments. Brick and depleting walls do not need a doom ;
- When the wooden walls are insulated at home, the surface is carefully prepared. In preparation included Antiseptic treatment ;
- Brick and fetal walls are better to insulate materials that have high moisture resistance . These include Penoplex, expanded polystyrene. For the tree, the insulation must pass the air, so breathable mineral wool fit ;
- Brick and aerated concrete walls have different thermal conductivity. Since the brick is higher, for such a wall you need to take a layer of insulation that is thickening. Alternatively, you can make a masonry thicker.
All technologies are available for walls of brick. The finishing facade facing is used different types:
- facing brick;
- "Wet facade";
- ventilated facade.
The thermal insulation of wooden walls outside is carried out using mineral wool using a mounted facade technology. The polystyrene foam and method of "wet facade" is used. In this case, the remote doome creates a ventilated gap between the outer wall and the insulation layer.
How to calculate the thickness of the insulation
When the insulation of walls is calculated from the outside, a variety of parameters take into account:
- Climatic conditions of this area: Temperature conditions, how much the heating season lasts, how many days of sunny days;
- Glazing at home: its appearance and dimensions;
- Features of the floor covering, its heat capacity;
- thermal insulation of the structure of the roof and basement;
- Metal connections between the wall and facing.
To decide how to insulate the already decorated house, you need to choose one of the three parameters of the insulation thickness: 50, 100, 150 mm. This can be done using standards and tables with standards.
After that, determine how much lacks the real wall to the desired level, and calculate how much insulation must be added. When calculating, it is necessary to take into account the presence of an additional layer of plaster at the wet facade, the air layer at the ventilated, the inner finish of the walls of the facade.
Eliminates the calculations online Calculator, which can be easily found on the Internet.
How to mount the insulation on the facade
How to warm the house outside? First of all, preparatory work should be held :
- remove old cladding;
- remove dirt and garbage;
- make dismantling of attachments of engineering systems;
- dismantle the flows, visors;
- Remove lamps from the facade.
The surface of the wall structure is strengthened: cracks are eliminated, sprinkled zones are cleaning. The surface is applied to the surface of deep penetration.
When fixing cladding on the "wet facade" system, the wall plane is aligned with adhesive composition as much as possible. Landmark for strengthening the first row of polystyrene plates is the starting plank. The second and the following rows shift the vertical at least 200 mm. Delta at the junction should not exceed 3 mm. In the corners of the openings should not intersect the stoves. Additional mounting the plates are carried out by umbrella dowels.
Before plastering on the plates, they are reinforced with glassball.
When a ventilated facade is created, mineral wool is used in mats. They are attached to the crate, and the surface is covered with glass choles or membrane and vapor-permeable properties. The interlayer between the wall and the insulation should be 60-150 mm.
It is important to take into account weather conditions during installation:
- Air temperature in Street: (+10) - (+25) °;
- There should be no precipitation or fog 10 days before the start of work;
- Humidity: not higher than 40%.
In accordance with these conditions, the optimal time for insulating works - from April to May and from September to October.
Main ways of insulation outside
There are several options for insulation of the facade outside, and everyone has its advantages and cons. Let's go through the main methods.
Wet facade (plaster)
Features of the wet (plaster) facade are as follows:
- A wall is prepared, glue is applied with a layer no more than 3 cm;
- the insulation material is styled;
- The glue layer is repeated;
- A fiberglass mesh for reinforcement is to the reinforcement, aligned with an additional layer of glue;
- Apply plaster, with its help walls are aligned;
- The primer of deep penetration is treated with the surface;
- Apply paint or other final finish to choose from.
Used for mineral wool and foamflast.
Heavy plaster systems
The peculiarity of this method is to use additional fasteners (dowels) . The wall is also prepared, an insulating coating is applied to it, and fasten it with anchors and dowel. Further work is similar to the previous method of the wet facade.
This method gives the strength of the wall, protects it from mechanical damage.
Used when cladding tiles or stone.
Ventilated mounted facade
A metal lamp is installed, with its help an air layer is formed between the wall and trim.
The arrangement includes preparatory work, isolation (vapor - and hydro) is strengthened, an idres is put. The installation of the insulation is carried out, the facade is carried out. Usually, brick, stone (artificial), sandwich panels act as material for finishing.
Recommendations for choosing
How to warm the house? To Correctly choose the insulation, should take into account some factors affecting the final result of the work :
- What condition is the walls and foundation . Heavy designs are not allowed in old buildings with damage. In this case, it is better to use lungs and at the same time strong materials, strengthening them with glue;
- Architectural complexity of the building . The presence of decor and various patterns dictates the selection of insulation is a mineral wool or foam. They will be perfectly cope with the task;
- Resistance to rodents and insects . Absolutely not attractive for these pests - clay.
In addition to these major factors, also take into account the price, the specifics of the installation, the effect on the external environment.
Should I warm up?
Warm a private house outside with your own hands or with the involvement of specialists is simply necessary if you plan to stay in your home not only in summer, but also in winter. The cost of insulation of the house will subsequently become investment in your comfort and health.
The main weather in the house - these words from the song better than any other reflect the most important characteristics of any home. Indeed, a good house is a warm house, so the main task, solved during the construction of the house, is a high-quality insulation.
It should be understood that the insulation of the house at the construction stage and the insulation of the already built house is completely different tasks.
The first one is solved either by the construction of walls from energy-efficient building materials - wood, foam concrete, etc., or, for example, in the construction of frame houses in the filling of cavities inside wall-frames with energy efficient thermal insulation materials. As a result, the erected house is initially obtained quite warm.
In the second case, if errors were made during construction or there was a need for restructuring at home, initially not intended for living in the winter time, all work on dumptions are carried out only from the outside.
Objects of insulation
What you need to insulate that the "weather in the house" was good at any time of the year:
- base - needs insulation if a warm basement is needed;
- half the first floor - it always makes sense to warm, even if under it a warm basement;
- Walls - the most important Object heat loss ;
- Inter-storey overlaps - if the next floor does not heal (for example, this is an attic), then it is necessary to warm up. If the next floor is heated, then there is no temperature imbalance on different floors, it is recommended. The fact is that warm air always rises up and, in the absence of thermal insulation between the floors, falls on the next floor. As a result - heat on the upper floors;
- Roof - do not forget about warm air, which seeks up and comes to the end to the roof. This air, in addition to everything, is saturated with water vapors, which will be condensed on the cold, in the absence of thermal insulation, the inner surface of the roof. In winter, when the difference between the air temperature inside the room and the roof temperature will be maximum, it will be especially visible. The result will be dripping with water, freezing in case of insufficient ceiling thermal insulation, and a number of other, very unpleasant moments.
Heat insulation materials
For insulation of the house, a huge number of all kinds of materials are used. It does not make sense to describe them all, we list the most popular today:
- mounting foam;
- Foamed polyethylene (heat heater);
- MDVP panels;
- bulk thermal insulation materials (ceramzite, etc.);
- Ultrathine thermal insulation materials (heat insulating paints, plaster).
Let's focus more on each
Styrofoam - foamed polystyrene foam. It happens: ordinary - rather loose, fragile and flammable, or extruded - much more dense, durable, with improved heat insulating characteristics - 100 mm are similar to 2000 mm of brickwork - it will be in mind when mentioning foam. Installation is pretty simple - the plates are easy to cut the knife in size. The side edges are equipped with a quarter-quarter, for better clutch between sheets. When propaging seams, a monolithic, having no coil bears, a waterproof surface is obtained. If it is necessary to secure sheets on some surface, either mounting foam, or a suitable installation glue, or special dowels are used. Since the foam is destroyed under the action of ultraviolet radiation, then after installation, it requires its protection - it can be any light-tight surface or painting.
Madelita - It is a wate-like material from glass or stone fibers. It is manufactured in the form of plates or rolls. Good thermal insulation - 150 mm similar to 2000 mm brickwork. Installation is carried out, as a rule, not less than two layers (the MTC thickness is most often 50 mm) with disintegration of seams. Rolled material is simply rolled over the surface. Surplus are easy to trimmed with a knife. When working with the minion, it is necessary to use individual means of protection: gloves, respirators. The material is absolutely non-flammable and in the process of operation does not distinguish any harmful substances, therefore it is considered environmentally friendly. However, there is a possibility of formation of stone or glass dust, which must be considered in the construction. It is afraid of water, when wetting loses its thermal insulation properties.
Mounting foam - For domestic purposes, foam in cylinders is most often used. Suitable for local insulation - filling small cavities, slots, insulation of door and window openings. Works on the warming of large surfaces are made using special equipment. It has the same as the foam, thermal conductivity and is also afraid of ultraviolet and requires additional protection. Not afraid of water.
Heat insole - It is foamed polyethylene. With a small thickness, it is produced in rolls, and with significant - in the form of mats. On the one hand may have a heat-reflecting foil layer. In this case, called foil thermal insulation. Good heat insulator - 100 mm similar to 2000 mm brickwork. Installation of rugged heat insol is carried out using a construction stapler with an adhesive. For montage, mats use special transparent mounting glue. They are also sang. The heat is not afraid of water and is very durable.
Plates MDVP - Microporous wood fiber panels. Strong enough with good thermal insulation properties - 200 mm similar to 2000 mm brickwork. When installing form a flat solid surface. As well as any leafy wood materials (chipboard, plywood, etc.). Environmentally friendly material.
Bulk thermal insulation materials - Granules, as a rule, foamed material. The most famous are foam balls and ceramzite. The thermal conductivity of the ceramisite is worse than the foam balls - 100 mm are similar to 500 mm brickwork. Installation is carried out by embankment in the available cavities.
Ultrathine thermal insulation - The youngest material. As a rule, it represents the basis - paint or plaster filled with ceramic micrographs with vacuum inside. Apply as well as the basis, that is, with a brush or spatula. With a minimum thickness (3 mM paint, plaster 10-20 mm), they have thermal insulation properties comparable with 2000 mm brickwork.
Installation of thermal insulation
If you have conceived to make a warm or at least a rapid basement, and the thickness of the walls of the base is insufficient to provide the necessary insulation, additional thermal insulation is necessary. The most obvious, but the wrong solution will be insulation from the inside. In this case, it may be possible to achieve a positive temperature in the basement, but the outer base wall has been frozen, and it will freeze. So that this does not happen, the insulation of the base must be carried out only outside.
If a Cocol It is not detachable, then the insulation is made by foam, mounting foam or ultra-hot insulation. If it is planned to finish with materials requiring installation of an additional crate, such as base siding, then you can warm the heat inspection. The doomle in this case is mounted on top of the finished layer of thermal insulation. The application of the Ministry of Membercle is allowed, but do not forget that it is very hydrophobic, and the base is part of the house exposed to the enhanced effects of moisture. Therefore, when applying the Ministry of Summary, it is necessary to take care of the enhanced waterproofing layer.
If the base is already decorated, then in this case the finish will have to be removed, or to produce insulation. Works both labor-intensive and costly, especially since the finishing finish after that will have to be re-made. It remains either to inspire from the inside - what, as mentioned very badly, or forget about the warm basement. Partially solve the problem can be painted by the separated base of thermal insulation paint. The appearance at the same time, of course, will be spoiled, but not as when using other thermal insulation materials.
Works on the insulation of the floor of the first floor are practically independent of the type of overlap. They can be wooden or concrete. Consider both options given whether the heat insulation was made, but additional, or not.
Let's start with the description of the necessary work where the insulation was not.
If the overlaps are concrete, then in this case they are used as the base on which the heat insulating layer is stacked. Sequence of work:
- We establish lags.
- We produce thermal insulation. Materials used for insulation:
- Polyfoam - stacked throughout the width between lags. All seams are repaired;
- Martex - mats are cut into size, slightly greater than the distance between the lags. When laying slightly crushed. As a result, after installing the Martex, taking its real dimensions, it reliably overlaps the possible wrecks of cold between their edge and lag;
- The bulk heat insulation is simply poured into the interagic space of the necessary layer.
- We put a vapor barrier film.
- Fit the finishing floor.
If the floors are wooden, then the materials are used the same, but the work is some others:
- We stretch from the bottom of the lag waterproofing film (rubaroid or special membrane).
- We are late in the bottom of the draft floor (if the bulk material will be used, then a solid shield, if any other, then can be up to 100 mm between the boards).
- We produce thermal insulation.
- We put a vapor barrier film.
- Fit the finishing floor.
The thickness of the heat insulating layer in any case should be at least 100 mm.
If additional floor insulation is needed, then all the work on the decessulation is carried out from the bottom, that is, from the side of the basement. Materials used for this:
- Polyfoam - mounted on glue for outdoor thermal insulation or mounting foam (required until the glue has gripped, sheets will fix with lard with large hats);
- foam - spans in an industrial method from below on the draft floor;
- MDVP plates - attached to any suitable fastener;
- The heat insol - in the case of wooden floors - is shot by a construction stapler, in the case of concrete - on a pre-mounted wooden crate of the stapler, or on glue directly to the concrete surface.
Consider two options:
- The primary insulation of the walls - is made in the construction of frame houses and houses with the design layer of the effective heat insulator (for example, brick-thermal insulation-brick);
- Additional insulation - produced with insufficient heat insulation of the finished home.
In the first case, you need to know two things:
- For homes intended for accommodation at any time of the year, the thickness of the required layer of energy efficient thermal insulation must be at least 150 mm.
- The combination of various materials gives the best effect than the use of one.
Works on the insulation of the house are divided into stages similar to the work on the insulation of the floor, namely:
Installation of a waterproofing film - here, it is better to use a special "breathable" membrane - the very first layer.
Installation of thermal insulation - Materials:
- Polyfoam - all seams are repaired if used as the first layer, the waterproofing is not required;
- Masterpit - As already mentioned, it fits at least two layers with dispersion. Special attention should be paid to fixing the material on the vertical surface. To do this, you can or use special fasteners (sold in construction stores), or mount a fixing crate;
- Mounting foam - Fill all the space intended for thermal insulation. Works are manufactured using special equipment.
Installation of a vapor barrier film. It is impossible to underestimate the value of vapor insulation walls. The fact is that in the process of human life, a huge amount of water vapor is distinguished. It, together with the exhaled air, creates increased pressure indoors. In winter, when all the windows are closed, there is nowhere to go to the excess air, and it begins to go through the pores and microphole walls, gender and ceiling. The outer surface of the walls has a negative temperature, and the internal one is positive. It is clear that somewhere inside the wall temperature, moving from the plus to minus, becomes equal to 0 ° C. This point is called a friction point. Water steam, penetrating through the wall, condenses in the cold zone - dew point and freezes at the waterproof point. From this characteristics of the heat insulating layer deteriorate significantly. The result is the shift point of the dew and the point of freezing inside. The condensing process of moisture continues, but closer to the inner surface of the wall, which leads to a further shift of both points inside. In the end, the wall may freeze through. To avoid this and applies a vapor barrier film. She does not let moisture inside the walls, while remaining breathable.
Premises finishing. Between the material used for this (for example, plasterboard or clapboard) and a vapor barrier layer, it is recommended to leave a gap.
An example of a combined warming of the walls of a frame house:
- The first layer - the foam 50mm - waterproof material, does not require waterproofing;
- second layer - minplit 100 mm;
Additional insulation of the house is always performed outside - remember the point of freezing, insulation from the inside will move it inside the house, insulation outside - shifts to the outer surface of the walls. Applied materials:
- Polyfoam - glued to the wall surface. Does not require waterproofing. Plastering under painting, or closes by any siding;
- Mingcle - used hard or semi-rigid stove. Mashed to the wall with the help of special dowels. The waterproofing film is stretched over. Further two options are possible:
- Installation of the suspended ventilated facade
- Stucco with subsequent trim
- Foam - spans on the wall with a layer of necessary thickness. Closed or siding or, after alignment, is placed and painted.
- Heat insol - mounted in any available way - with a stapler or glue. Does not require waterproofing. Closes by any siding;
- MDVP plates are mounted on the crate with self-draws. The outside is closed with a waterproofing film. Suitable for any type of external finish;
- Ultrathine thermal insulation - applicable on any surfaces. Since, being a heat insulator, while maintaining all the properties of your base (paint or plaster), it is applied and is separated by a corresponding basis by methods.
Warming of inter-storey overlaps
As mentioned above, this is the necessary stage of complex insulation of the house. In addition, you should not forget that almost any thermal insulation is still a good soundproofing that for overlaps between residential floors is quite relevant.
In fact, the insulation of inter-storey floors is performed in the same way as the insulation of the floor. It should be noted that in the case of wooden floors of the subsequent floor, this is the ceiling of the previous one. Mounting from the bottom to the lags of the MDW plate, it is possible to reduce the costs of the subsequent finishing ceiling and ceiling heat insulation.
Heavy insulation roofing
Before carrying out work on the warming of the roof, it is necessary to provide high-quality waterproofing. Any leakage will reduce the positive effect of thermal insulation. Works that need to be carried out for waterproofing, depend on whether you will build a house or you will warm up already built.
In the new building, the waterproofing of the roof is produced at the installation phase of the roofing material. As a rule, for this it is envisaged by a waterproofing layer between roofing material and base (rafters with cladder). Special films or runner can be used as such a layer. In this case, it is necessary to leave a gap between waterproofing and roofing material.
What can be done if when installing the roof waterproofing did not provide. There are two options here:
- The thermal insulation is not yet done - that is, from the inside through the crate, the reverse side of the roofing material is visible. Mount the film from the bottom of the rafter does not make sense, since the thermal insulation layer mounted below the film is significantly "eating" the useful volume of the room. Waterproofing must be made in an interconnection space. For this, the waterproofing film is tensioning between the rafters, as shown in the photo: as waterproofing, a rolled heat insol can be consolidated. It will also be the first layer of thermal insulation. From the foam, it is also possible to make a hydraulic insulating layer. Sheets are cut in width equal to the distance between the rafters, and then fixed in the interconnection space using the mounting foam (all seams are repaired).
- The thermal insulation is already done - in this case, the waterproofing will not work, because, as mentioned above, it is done between the roof and thermal insulation. It remains only to monitor the integrity of the roof and, in the event of a leakage, immediately take repair measures. For sealing the flowing sites, the mastic for repairing roofs and waterproofing is very well.
So, the roof does not proceed, it remains to be insulated.
With primary insulation, the installation of thermal insulation is carried out in the interconnection space. For this purpose, foam, minplit, thermal health and foam applies. Installation is carried out as well as when the walls are insulation. After reaching the necessary thickness of the heat insulating layer, the finishing of the room is carried out. If you can use the thermal insulation layer between the rafters to do it thinner.
If the roof insulation works were performed using hydrophobic materials, the final stage of the vapor barrier film will be installed before carrying out the finishing.
When the roof is added, all work is carried out on the finished finish. The most "gentle" options, that is, we require minimum effort, there will be insulation with super-hot heat insulation (painting) or installation of MDW panels. Both of these options will require a minimum effort on the subsequent finishing.
If you use other materials - foam, minicle, foam or heat insol, then, after installation, you will have to reinstate all finishing work work - the manufacture of crates and trimming with finishing materials or, if the material allows, then, for example, putty and painting. When applying the Ministry of Member's Do not forget about vaporizolation.
Separately, it is worth mentioning the situation when all work on hydro and thermal insulation was carried out, but the last floor ceiling is still freezing. Places of freezing are clearly visible on plasterboard and wallpaper - they change the color to the darker. Such a situation is possible when, for example, insulation was carried out by the Ministry of Education and Science, which did not fix on the inclined planes and over time it slid down. In this case, the holes are drilled in the places of freezing and through them all cavities are filled with the mounting foam from the ballons.
So, correctly, the warmed house will not only save the cold people living in it, but also will last much longer, because heat insulation, in addition to its main work, also protects the structural elements of the house from destruction.
© RMNT.ru, Igor Maksimov