Are animals of emotions are akin to human? Are they capable of communication - such as we understand it? Animal observations in several national parks allowed Karl Safine to write one of the most dishearsal books about the brothers of our smaller - if, of course, it is possible to call elephants, wolves and kitkeets. And you knew how the elephants get acquainted and drink offspring?
Pairing for individual schedule
We drive past three large males. One of them, Vronsky, is a famous Brener. They are trying to not communicate even those elephants that are older. In Vronsky, now the Musta is a period of strongest sexual arousal and aggressiveness, which in the males dominated in the population periodically occurs upon reaching a thirty-year-old turn. (By the way, in the Urdu language, this word means "intoxication".)
In such a state, the elephant is several months. He constantly lies away the rest of the males, in which he sees rivals, and behaves like a deer during Gon. But the deer of Gong happens at the same time, by autumn. Elephants occurs in accordance with the vital hormonal cycle of each individual.
A similar individual schedule, which representatives of other detachments, is not a striking find of nature, which made the life of females of probitives, and the life of males is safer. Such a reproduction system is more convenient than that of manflot or lastonous, where the alpha males are forced to defend their hams of encroachment: for a short period of dominion, it is necessary to pay permanent battles with rivals, which are pulled out, cripples, and then lowered them, signing it. Death sentence.
The elephants are the most powerful and older, the males are sent with the beginning of the rain period to the Donjun tour, because in each family they are waiting for tractor fertilies, ready for the SOTIMI.
My wiki conductor explains:
- Usually among males there is no spirit of rivalry. They are good to each other, they are fun together. As long as there is no trader female nearby, we have nothing to share. Young elephants at the age of fifteen-twenty years are interested in the opposite sex, but as a twenty-year-old Yunets can take a fifty-year-old elephant, which is twice as much?
During the Must, the testosterone level in the male jumps four of them, he behaves powerfully and aggressively. And since the elephant is unconditionally preferred by males in this state, young people do not even try to make them competitive. They will happen in their thirty years old - then they will receive their first real sexual experience.
When an elephant can attack
The presence of "age" males does not allow to play hormones in young people, so they do not go beyond the fractions of decency. The case is known when several orphaned elephant adolescents were together in one of the South African reserves. Since there were no adult males near, their testosterone was worse, and they flooded several rhinos to death. The case is unheard.
- For an elephant family loss is a tragedy that cannot pass without a trace. I think these young murderers of rhinos after severe mental trauma developed post-traumatic syndrome, that is, a severe stress disorder. As soon as the reserve was delivered two adult males at the age of about forty years, the riots stopped.
But back to our national park. Here, next to Vronsky, one more elephant walks, who also has a must. And wiki, unfortunately, does not know anything about him: who is that for temper, as belonging to people, are solid riddles. The stranger unfolds us to meet us, and the wiki immediately stretches to the ignition key:
- When it wanders nearby, the ear must be kept to the east to a little - in gases. And be sure to be the path of retreat, if you have to wish.
In another field camp, I had a chance to see the car, which, after the "duel" of two elephants in a mustard, loser crumpled in a cake. Here it is shifted aggression. Well, without sacrifice, the inhabitants of the car managed to sniff.
- If the elephant really decides to attack, there will be no prelude. He rushes immediately, - Wiki warns. - But if the head winds, it may be bluff, then you should not panic. When I see an unfamiliar adult elephant like this, every time I think: will climb or not?
The stranger comes closer, stops under the crowning tree and is taken to rub back about the trunk. Soothing wiki smiles:
- Well, of course, scratched ass, and escaped!
The elephant blissfully covers his eyes.
"That's right," wiki whisper approvingly. - The main thing - in the right place to rush.
Caring for elephants: very familiar
In females, the first estrus when they reach sexual maturity and are ready for mating, comes in eleven years and lasts, as a rule, three or four days. The flow passes into the estrus and usually ends with pregnancies, which lasts two years, then two years the elephant feeds, and further comes the flow, that is, a new cycle begins. Four years after childbirth, it brings the next elephant.
In other words, the female female takes care of the cavaliers no more often than four days every four years. So everything is rarely happening, but aptive, and therefore the process is associated with unrest.
The males in a mustache clashes with visits to different families, exiting a special secret from swollen temporal glands, located on both sides of the head. These slump glands have representatives of both sexes, and the allocation of them accompany any surge of emotional or some other excitation. Probably, we would feel the same, be with us between the ear and the eye of the armpit.
During a mustache, an elephant constantly leaks the urine, the caustic smell of which informs others about its excited state. Penis acquires greenish color. Cynthia Moss and Joyce Poole described Must African elephants in the 70s of the twentieth century. They did not immediately understand what they decided to have something to deal with the sick males, even the name was invented: a green penis disease. And all this was less than fifty years ago. Imagine how little we then knew about the elephants? The most obvious things put scientists in a dead end.
So, the male is looking for tractor females in a mustache. He sniffs the air, sniffing than smelling in his families in his way. Approaching the female female, he instead of the classics of the frame - the question: "Who are you on a horoscope?" - adapts to a fingebogo process at the end of the trunk to her vagina, sniffs it, and then tastes, that is, pulls the trunk in the mouth. Such a frank familiarity of the lady does not bother at all. Slonihi perceive such surveys in the literal sense, not stopping at this time to graze or go, where they walked, as if nothing special happened.
Elephants are similar to people in many respects, but not in everything. In any case, the marriage games does not apply. If the elephants have a damage, and all the family begin to precipitate different males. They follow them on the heels. But it is necessary among them to be an elephant in a mustache, as the applicants are lagging in the lamp, because now the female under his protection. It is precisely such a male that gives preference.
Elephant "Santa Barbara": It is important that it does not reach
Now, when this unfamiliar elephant goes to the area of habitat, this unfamiliar elephant walks, I clearly see how males are larger than females.
"Lord," Vicky Own, "that's foreskin!"
Adult twenty-five-year-old elephant seems to two times less than his cavalier.
"Look, look," whispers wiki, "she goes to greet.
They rush, for a moment their tricks are intertwined. It is unlikely that she is now there - next to her elephant, which she probably feeds. Nevertheless, this elephant does not allow this elephant to her.
Here is a stranger freezing and with some exaggerated negligence reckoning a giant trunk through a powerful tale.
- It's so that the elephants understand that there is nothing to be afraid. He seems to them: "You see what peace I am peaceful and calm. I went in my own. I'm sorry." We also call it: "come in relation to", "the wiki smiles. "Of course, we just have a series about elephant life," Santa Barbara ", which is sure to sit down. Interestingly, who is spinning with whom. That's what is the Vronsky doing now?
It is important that it does not reach the fight. If the males begin to fight, then it is "six tons of live weight on each side, and they move on each other at speed almost fifty kilometers per hour, putting forward massive sharp beements. This is the battle to death."
Cynthia Moss happened once to observe the fighting of two equal opponents. The confrontation between the two males in the mustra lasted ten hours and twenty minutes, without a single break. At the same time, direct elephants converged only three times: madly clutching the ones, they tried to knock each other with the legs and squeeze the ground.
The rest of the time they circled at a distance, then reducing it, then increasing, roaring, turned the trees and bushes with roots, trying to intimidate the enemy. At some point, one of them picked the front leg to the log to seem above. As a result, with the one who put the nerves, and he retreated.
Meanwhile, Duk, young elephant of fourteen years old, appears in four from the car. Having stretched out the trunk in my direction, he sniffs a stranger, then it seems to be deciding to move away, but it is a maneuver. As if wishing to show who is the main thing here, he sharply turns out, he throws his head, beats his ears, and whether to deal with them, grows in front of us, having winding her head and threatening the trunk.
Little brown eyes burst me, he slowly approaches. I see wrinkles and folds of his trunk, movable skin of the ears, I see every detail, every line of his appearance - frightening, but not yet to the end of convincing.
Dyuku is worthwhile to flood us, but he is not going to do this. His behavior is a teenage bravade, which passes with age. He is affection to show what he is big and strong, but he himself is not fully confident and only thinks on the role of an adult.
But in our reaction, he is sure, therefore climbs, although it really does not feel a threat from our side. He is not afraid, does not worry and is not going to harm us.
I understand what he wants to do. He expresses his intentions, and I read them. He sends me information, and I accept it. In other words, there is communication between us, or, in the language of science, communicative interaction.
As elephants multiply
Few zoopards of the world in which elephants are contained, they boast that their huge pets have become parents. In captivity, the elephants are blown bad - the stay alone deprives the animals of the social skills necessary for the normal establishment of relations with the opposite sex, in addition, the climatic conditions of zoos are influenced by the fertility of the elephants, often not suitable for these thermal-loving animals. In the will of the elephants multiply more intensively - in favorable conditions, elephant can bring offspring every 3-4 years.
Slonihi reaches puberty by 10-12 years, in unfavorable for lifeconditions
Sexual maturity comes later - in 18-20 years. The ability to fully enter the offspring of females is gained in 15-16 years. The males become half-covered in 10-15 years, but competition with adult elephants rarely allows them to begin to multiply before 25-30 years - in marriage fights, as a rule, won stronger and experienced males.
Approximately 20 years annually in young elephants for several weeks, and sometimes there is a condition known in India as "Musta". During this period, males exhibit special aggressiveness, become more excited than usual. ATof the blood of the male
During the Musta, the level of testosterone sharply increases, from glands, located between the ear and the eye, highlights a special secret. In females, the Must is rarely manifested, aggressiveness is less pronounced.
During the pulp of the elephants, they are looking for females ready for mating, approaching herds, although the rest of the time is singleLifestyle
Or collected in small groups consisting of only young males. Elephants arrange marriage fights, care for females. The formed pairs are separated from the herd for several days,after
The mating of the elephant returns to the overall herd, the male leaves the group of young elephants or one remains.
The estral cycle in the elephant lasts about 4 months, while the female is ready only during Estrus - within two days. In the drought, the sexual activity of animals falls - no ovulation does not occur in the elephants, the males do not demonstrate the marriage behavior.
Pregnancy in Slonih lasts 22 months. Before childbirth, the female leaves herd, but it does not go far from him. With the appearance of a young man in labor, there is no one - it is accompanied by one or more elephant, to protect from predators, helping the elephant to stand on his feet, and sometimes even providing a kind of help in childbirth, cautiously pulling the cub with the help of a trunk. As a rule, the elephants are born one young, extremely rare - two. The weight of the newborn is from 60 to 115 kilograms from Indian elephants and from 90 to 130 kilograms in African.
Despite the impressive sizes, elephant remain dependent on the mother for a very long time. Two years old and more female feeds the young milk, although the elephant is capable of solid food already 6 months after birth. In the herd for the kids for several years, imperceptible young elephants look after - for them it is a kind of preparing for motherhood. "Nanny" return the young in herd if they happen to fight off from the group, protected from predatory animals. In the future, such a guard does not only increase the survival rate of young, but also ensures the care of future mothers about his own offspring.
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